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_id ddssar0223
id ddssar0223
authors Mahdavi, A, Suter G. and Ries, R.
year 2002
title A Representation Scheme for Integrated Building Performance Analysis
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper presents a representational scheme for integrated building performance analysis. The underlying research work was motivated by the need for seamless exchange of structured design information.A comprehensive and widely accepted industry standard suitable for exchanging design information among the various AEC (Architecture/Engineering/Construction) applications has yet to emerge. As a contribution to this on-going discussion, we present a specific approach to the integration problem in building product modeling. This approach can be viewed as pragmatic or bottom-up in the sense that itwas driven by the informational needs of related individual domains (particularly in the early stages of design) rather than by a quest for a universally applicable solution. In this paper, we describe a schemawhich emerged from the SEMPER effort, a multi-year project aimed at supporting detailed performance analysis for early design in the energy, life-cycle analysis, lighting, and thermal comfort domains. Thisschema relies on a representational division of labor between a shared building model, and various disciplinary (domain) models. Specifically, we present a documentation of the shared object model together with disciplinary models for the energy, light, acoustics, and life-cyle assessment domain.
keywords building product models, building performance, integration
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 166c
authors Song, Y., Clayton, M.J. and Johnson, R.E.
year 2002
title Anticipating reuse: documenting buildings for operations using web technology
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 185-197
summary This research explores the feasibility of web technology as a means for delivering building information to better support facility operations. Our research proposes just-in-time (JIT) facility documentation as a pragmatic solution to the limitations of current as-built documents, allowing more effective reuse of building information. Our investigation addresses four issues: (1) what building information is needed for facility operations; (2) how the design and construction team can improve the format for delivering the building information to facility operators; (3) how current web technology can store and deliver facility information in support of operations; and (4) what is the mechanism of documenting building information using the web technology. We surveyed literature, interviewed members of design and operations teams and reviewed current initiatives of industry and software vendors to identify problems with current practices. We also surveyed promising web technologies and conducted experiments to determine how these technologies could help to solve the problems. We constructed a conceptual framework of JIT facility documentation as a solution to current information fragmentation problems. We developed a prototype of the JIT document system to demonstrate a "proof of concept" by using current web technologies such as Autodesk's DWF, Microsoft's Active Server Pages, VB and Java script, and Access database to develop the prototype system. By dynamically composing HTML pages in response to task-specific requests, our prototype enables easy access and integration of a variety of building information to support facility operations.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 060b
authors Af Klercker, J.
year 1997
title A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology.

In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.

The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.

The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established.

Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.

Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.

 

keywords CAAD, IT, Implementation, Education, Collaboration
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/afklerck/afklerck.htm
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0214
id ddssar0214
authors Al Hassan, F., Trum, H.M.G.J. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 2002
title Strategic Briefing A Conceptual Process Model for Building Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Nowadays building design problems are divided in partial discipline related sub-problems. Through targeted and focused attention to sub problems however the awareness of the whole is lost. Each designparticipant gives his sub-problem first priority. In contrast in the past the master builder saw the whole problem as his problem first. Thus the process of seeing the design problem as a whole, as a result ofprioritizing, considering constraints, or strategizing, is lost in today’s practice, basically because this process is a mental and implicit process, that occurred in the brain of the multi-disciplinary master builder.In most cases it is the task of no one in a design team today. The aim of this paper is modeling this conceptual mental implicit process design using System Theory and Cognitive Psychology, trying to determine the structure of the design problem as it occurs intuitively in the brain. The result will provide us with a mechanism that enables us each time to refine a unique common design problem representation. This leads to more effective use of design team capabilities, and forms an essential basis for organizing efforts toward collaborative solutions. Also some kind of clarity is provided as to how proposed solutions are to be judged.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ac57
authors Bae, H.A., Kim, M.R., Shin, S.Y., Kim, H.A. and Yoon, C.S.
year 2002
title An Application of Photogrammetry Measuring Technology to Parametric Modeling of Korean Traditional Wooden Structure
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 139-146
summary To construct a 3D parametric model of Korean traditional wooden structure, the fundamental process is to obtain the dimensions of each building. An application of measuring high technology helps this process accomplished more efficiently. However PhotoModeler is a photogrammetric program to measure the dimension using photographs. The information derived from PhotoModeler is used to clarify the design rule inherent in a Korean traditional mansion type building - UnHyun Palace.
series CAADRIA
email bhanseon@hanmail.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id 6533
authors Maher, A.M. and Burry, M.C.
year 2002
title Hybridized Measurement: Interpreting historical images of Sagrada Família Church in Barcelona using CAD-based digital photogrammetry
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 448-455
summary This paper gives an account of the extrapolated use of digital photogrammetry undertaken by the Spatial Information Architecture Laboratory (SIAL) in the pursuit for new interpretations of historical images at the Sagrada Família Church. The work is an extension of the research activities undertaken as part of the Australian Research Council (ARC) Strategic Partnerships with Industry – Research and Training (SPIRT) project New onto Old : 3D flexible computer modelling to aid heritage building restoration, recycling and extension, where digital photogrammetry was first explored as a measurement tool for non-specialist implementation. The research makes use of the link between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and digital photogrammetry in a reverse manner, using built spatial data to produce orthographic rectified images of what was intended from the historical drawings and models of the architect Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926).
series eCAADe
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 6862
authors Ozel, Filiz and Kohler, Niklaus
year 2002
title Data Modeling Issues in Simulating the Dynamic Processes in Life Cycle Analysis of Buildings
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 187-195
summary Typically, in simulating the dynamic processes in buildings, data modeling efforts require the modelingof the building geometry, its components and the relationship between these components, as well asthe modeling of the process that is under study. For example, in simulating the life cycle of a building,one must simulate the flow of materials as well as the flow of information as part of the processmodeling, while a component model is needed to represent the building as an artifact. A third aspect ofthis modeling effort constitutes the simulation of human intervention, i.e. the decision process that mightaffect the nature of the building itself as well as the process that acts upon it. For example, the decisionto remodel a certain component clearly affects both the component itself as well as the process ofaging, when life cycle of buildings is simulated. This paper looks at the data modeling requirements ofthe simulation of building life cycle within the context of the three parameters mentioned above: datamodel for buildings; process models and decision models. Temporal issues in data modeling, such asversioning for components, keeping track of data that are related to change and remodeling, andbuildings as temporal-spatial entities for life cycle analysis purposes are also addressed.
series ACADIA
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id b0f9
authors Peng, C., Chang, D., Blundell-Jones, P. and Lawson, B.
year 2002
title On an alternative framework for building virtual cities: supporting urban contextual modeling on demand
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 29, pp 87-103, Jan 2002
summary For various purposes, virtual city applications have been developed around the globe to provide users with online resources and services over the Internet. Following our research on the Sheffield Urban Contextual Databank (SUCoD) project, this paper presents an alternative framework for building virtual cities, which goes beyond conventional static urban modelling. A three-tier system framework is described in conjunction with the design and implementation of the SUCoD prototype. We demonstrate SUCoD's novel functionalities by showing that complex urban contextual information sets, including three-dimensional interactive models, multilayer interactive maps, and hypermedia documents, can be retrieved dynamically by user-specified urban contextual attributes, spatial loca- tions, and boundaries. The three-tier framework also facilitates system development in an extensible way, allowing continuous parallel extensions of system functionalities, user-interface components, and contextual data resources. SUCoD's dynamic capabilities are considered crucial in its future uses for urban contextual modelling on demand in relation to the past, present, and future of the City of Sheffield.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 156e
authors Tsou, J.-Y., Chow, B. and Lam, S.
year 2002
title Performance-Based Simulation for the Planning and Design of Hyper Dense Urban Habitation
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 249-256
summary The rapid development of the economy and urbanization create great pressure on population of Hong Kong, China and other developing countries. This not only brings great changes on the form and style of the urban sphere, but also, challenges to the natural environment and resources to support urban habitation. Regarding the process of urbanization, the development of the housing industry becomes the focus to resolve the need of materialization for urban living. For this reason, from time to time, technical and economical considerations are always prior to the significance of human settlement environment, humanity, and sustainable development. Considering the deficiency in urban human settlements environment, especially in responsiveness to the natural environment. Information technology (IT) undoubtedly can help to promote and assess the design and planning quality in both environmental and regional microenvironment aspects. A research project-Environmental Responsible Architecture and Urban Design (ERAU)-is established to support urban scale planning, information processing, and computer-aided performance evaluation on both micro and macro building design and planning efficiency.
series CAADRIA
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ddssar0220
id ddssar0220
authors Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 2002
title Knowledge Sharing for Collaborative Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary This paper presents the preliminary results of a research project that aims to develop and apply Design Knowledge Servers (DesKs) in the building and construction industry. The paper starts with a view on where the development of computer application in design and construction might be heading. It briefly looks at the current situation concerning information modelling for design support and compares two alternative ways of developing standards in this area. After this sketch of its context, the DesKs project is introduced and its objectives, characteristics, implementations issues, and application scenarios are discussed. The paper concludes with a preview of the next steps we will attempt to take and with an explanation of why it all takes so long.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade03_373_117_wittkopf
id ecaade03_373_117_wittkopf
authors Wittkopf, Stephen K. and Foo, E-Jin
year 2003
title Discussing Image-Based Modeling Technology for 3D Digital Archival of Physical Architecture Models
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 373-380
summary Besides drawings, physical models are important forms of representation commonly used for architectural design. They can serve as a useful resource for teaching and research, provided there is a proper archiving system that allows easy retrieval. Architectural models in 3D digital format seem to be able to overcome the limitation of physical constraints – they can be easily accessed anytime and anywhere over the Internet. The most common way of 3D model documentation is through geometric-based 3D CAD software. Image-based modeling (IM) allows the 3D digital model to be created from photographic images. Debevec (1998) investigated the hybrid geometry- and image-based approach whilst Tsou (2002) and Hawkins (2001) focused on the application of IM for GIS and digitizing cultural artifacts respectively. This paper aims to compare physical models and their IM counterparts in terms of communication of vital architectural information. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the extent the IM model resembled the physical predecessor in terms of its geometry and visual appearance qualities/faithfulness. A survey was subsequently carried out to compare their performance in terms of the communication of vital architectural information about building designs to the observers. The tabulated results were then examined to help understand the opportunities and weakness of IM for 3D archival of physical architecture models
keywords Image-based modeling, architecture model, digital archiving, design resource
series eCAADe
email akiskw@nus.edu.sg
more http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/akiskw
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 1083
authors Wu, Rui
year 2002
title Computer Aided Dimensional Control in Building Construction
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Dimensional control in the building industry can be defined as the operational techniques and activities that are necessary, during the construction process of a building, for the assurance of the defined dimension quality of a building (Hoof, 1986). Efficient and precise dimensional control of buildings under construction is becoming ever more important because of changes in the construction industry. More prefabricated components are used; more regulations appear; newly designed buildings have more complex shapes, and building construction is speeding up. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, a plan of dimensional control must be designed, on the basis of building drawings and specifications delivered by architects, before the building is constructed. The dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with adequate information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which can often be done by means of Total Stations. The essence of designing a dimensional control plan is to find out which points should be used as positioning points, which points should be set out in advance or controlled afterwards, and not to forget why. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the dimensional control of on-site construction projects, this research tries to capture the knowledge required to design an adequate dimensional control plan and make that knowledge more generally available, and build a digital connection between CAD systems and Total Stations, focusing on prefabricated concrete building structural elements. The instrument developed in this research for capturing of essential dimensional control information and knowledge makes use of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The chosen solution supports the stochastic analysis of optimal positioning points taking account of various sorts of deviations and their mutual relationships. The resulting information model has been written in a standardized information modelling language called UML (Unified Modelling Language). The model has been implemented in a Dimensional Control System (DCS) and applied in the “La Tour” construction project in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. The DCS provides a digital way to bridge the floor plan design with dimensional control, predict dimensional deviation limits and output the data needed for a Total Station. The case study of “La Tour” tests the UML model and prototype of the DCS. The results prove that direct positioning of objects (by putting reflectors on the objects and using a Total Station and by inputting coordinates extracted and calculated from the AutoCAD drawings) provides higher speed, accuracy and reliability. It also shows a way to (pre)position free form objects in 3D where traditional methods cannot. In conclusion: (1) it seems to be justified to expect that the application of the DCS will contribute to increased confidence in dimensional control and the reduction of costs of failure, which potentially could support the increased use of cheaper construction methods, and will also contribute to the improvement of building design and construction process. (2) the scientific contribution of this research is a first step towards providing dimensional quality in a construction process covered by stochastic dimensional uncertainty, even for positioning of free form objects.
keywords Construction Management; Constructional Engineering; Computer Applications
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 730e
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1997
title Implementation of IT and CAD - what can Architect schools do?
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 83-92
summary In Sweden representatives from the Construction industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg 2002 -Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry. A seminar was held with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in construction in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analysed and put together afterwards; then presented to the participants to agree on. Co-operation is the key to get to the goals - IT and CAD are just the means to improve it. Co-operation in a phase of implementation is enough problematic without the technical difficulties in using computer programs created by the computer industry primarily for commercial reasons. The suggestion is that cooperation between software companies within Sweden will make a greater market to share than the sum of all individual efforts. In the short term, 2 - 5 years, implementation of CAD and IT will demand a large amount of educational efforts from all actors in the construction process. In the process of today the architect is looked upon as a natural coordinator of the design phase. In the integrated process the architect's methods and knowledge are central and must be spread to other categories of actors - what a challenge! At least in Sweden the number of researchers and educators in CAAD is easily counted. How do we make the most of it?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddssar0203
id ddssar0203
authors Alkass, Sabah and Jrade, Ahmad
year 2002
title A Web-Based Virtual Reality Model for Preliminary Estimates of Hi-Rise Building Projects
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Cost estimating of a construction project at its early stage is considered to be very important task since it will be used as a base to commit or otherwise not to commit funds to that project. Preparation of a reliableand realistic preliminary estimate to aid the decision makers to commit funds for a specific project is a complicated assignment. Traditional methods and operations produced unsatisfactory aid due to lack ofaccuracy especially in the pre-design stage of a project. This participates in the increase of percentage of bankruptcy in the construction industry, which has dramatically climbed up and ranked as 15 percent of thewhole bankruptcies claimed in Canada (Statistic Canada 1998). This paper presents a methodology for developing and a Web-based model to automate preliminary cost estimates for hi-rise buildings. This is achieved by integrating a database with design drawings in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. The model will automatically generate preliminary estimates after modifying a 3D CAD drawing. It provides the user the option to visualize and simulate the drawing and its cost data through VR environment. Having done that, it will allow owners, architects and cost engineers to view a constructed building project, change its geometric objects and shapes, and accordingly generate a new conceptual cost estimate.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 7798
authors Barrow, Larry
year 2002
title Elitism, IT and the Modern Architect Opportunity or Dilemma
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 97-109
summary Information Technology (IT) is impacting architecture dramatically in process and form. Often thecurrent transformation of architecture is difficult to analyze and frequently we see confusion and anxietyregarding uncertainties for the future of the architect as designer and project leader. The currentpotentiality for new exotic form (i.e. product) is mesmerizing; however, in the current context, lessobvious issues and pertinent questions are emerging for the profession. What is the mission of theprofession? What will keep us relevant in the mist of the new global society?In this paper, we will take an evolutionary perspective of technology in architecture and draw parallelsbetween the Renaissance, which is the genesis of the modern architect, and the contemporary state ofarchitecture. The modern architect was birthed during the Renaissance where we see the retraction ofthe architect from the building site and separation from direct involvement in the building process.Communications technology (i.e. representation in the form of free-hand drawings, mechanical 2Dorthographic drawings and 3D perspectives) enabled the decomposition of the master builder into threecomponents (i.e. artist-designer, practicing_architect, and builder). Thus, we see technology enable thedenigration and ultimate dissolution of the centuries old craftsman guilds and the master builder. Thetechnology evolution of “drawings” enabled monumental change in the process of architecture over thepast five hundred years. The fission of the master builder, enabled by “drawings”, resulted in disparatefactions which are the forerunners of the modern day litigious design-bid-build project delivery. We nowincreasingly see a return to the fusion of design and building where often the architect is not the projectmanager or leader. Thus, the question looms, will the 21st century architect lead or be led, and whatare the ramifications for the profession?The historical Master Builder is re-emerging as a dynamically networked team of design andconstruction knowledge specialists. Bi-lateral knowledge exchange, enhanced with emerging IT, isoccurring between owners, managers, architects, design specialists, engineers, builders and machines.Technology is disrupting architecture, resulting in increasing specialization and compressed timeframes, and may require reevaluation of the role of the architect as project-leader "integrativegeneralist"or "design-specialist".Conclusively, the concept of ‘cybernetic architecture’ is proposed as an IT reference framework. Failureto appropriately respond to societal evolution, driven by technology, could result in the loss ofprofessional status for the modern architect. Herein lies our dilemma, or opportunity, depending on therole choice of the modern architect.
series ACADIA
email lbarrow@msstate.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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