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_id ascaad2007_007
id ascaad2007_007
authors Kaka, A.P.; Y. Ibrahim and T. Lukins
year 2007
title The Development of an Automated Progress Measurement System for Construction Work Packages
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 81-86
summary The challenges associated with collecting accurate data on the progress of construction have long been recognised. Traditional methods often involve human judgment, high costs, and are too infrequent to provide managers with timely and accurate control data. The aim of this study is to propose a prototype system that employs Computer Vision (CV) techniques to report on progress for components supplied from an integrated Building Information Model (BIM). This model stores and relates this feedback to a representation of the work breakdown structure (WBS) that assigns components to work packages. In this paper we present an overview of the actual system – from the theoretical and technical challenges encountered.
series ASCAAD
email A.P.Kaka@hw.ac.uk
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id sigradi2007_af24
id sigradi2007_af24
authors Monedero, Javier
year 2007
title Architectural eLearning: An inquiry into the fuzzy boundaries that separate education and instruction [Architectural eLearning. Una indagación sobre los límites borrosos que separan la educación y la instrucción]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 155-158
summary This communication is based on the development of a new subject to be imparted in collaboration with three Departments (Visual Communication, Projects and Construction) at the School of Architecture of Barcelona. It is a work that has been financed with a special grant from our university, aimed at the development of new teaching modalities and, in particular, of those that would develop the use of new technologies, collaboration among university departments and eLearning. The aim of the communication is twofold. First, to present some results that we consider valuable in themselves, as much for the techniques as for the methodology that we have used. Second, to propitiate a debate on the new situation that the teaching of architecture is moving to, due to the advance of a series of instruction methods where the methodological organization, the storing of informative material and the preparation of autonomous interactive systems, open more and more effective roads of learning but that, at the same time, point towards a new educational structure that fits badly within the traditional structures in which we have still to work daily. Regarding the first point, the main aspects to highlight are: a) the development of a selflearning system by means of a very complete series of tutorials that allow a gradual acquisition, depending on the necessities or interests of each student, of geometric modeling, parametric design, visual simulation and interactive animation techniques, b) the development of a system of general information supply and on line comments and corrections. Regarding the second point, a provisional theoretical framework has been elaborated based on the consideration of the ubiquitous visual communication media as misleading mediators of a personal relationship. This theoretical frame has been tested by a few experiences carried out with the collaboration of students implied in the project. The general conclusion is that both challenges must be faced at the same time: new educational technologies must be analysed and integrated in our curricula and a new theoretical framework, able to clarify the difference between instruction and education, must be developed in parallel with those technologies.
keywords Architecture; eLearning; Visual Communication
series SIGRADI
email javier.monedero@upc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaade2007_166
id ecaade2007_166
authors Liapi, Katherine A.
year 2007
title An Integrative Design and Spatial Visualization System for Cable Strut Self-tensioned Structures
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 27-34
summary Novel conceptions of structures consisting of spatial formations of struts and cables present a uniquely defined morphology and structural performance, and offer opportunities for innovative applications in building design. A common feature of these structures is that their spatial geometry is not “a priori” given. This paper is focused on a specific type of cable-strut structure that occurs from the assembly of self tensioned cable-strut modules The spatial configuration of these structures is very complex and necessitated the development of elaborate geometric algorithms that permit the generation of their formal geometry in a virtual 3D environment. To facilitate both the design and the construction of such structures, a spatial visualization system, which integrates a) algorithms for initial form generation, b) geometric parameters that simulate construction stiffening processes, and c) appropriate structural analysis methods, has been developed. The structural organization and parts of this system are presented in this paper. The system renders feasible the exploration of alternate geometries with various levels of pre-stress and displays initial and final configuration of the structure. It also allows for structural analysis data visualization. Examples of projects designed with the assistance of this system are included and discussed.
keywords Cable-strut structures, tensegrity structures, modeling
series eCAADe
email kliapi@upatras.gr
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id cf2007_331
id cf2007_331
authors Moum, Anita; Tore Haugen and Christian Koch
year 2007
title Stretching the Trousers Too Far? Convening societal and ICT development in the architectural and engineering practice
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9] Sydney (Australia) 11–13 July 2007, pp. 331-344
summary The publicly and privately funded national R&D program ‘Digital Construction’ was initiated in 2003 in order to establish a common platform for interchanging digital information and to stimulate digital integration in the Danish building industry. This paper explores the relation between visions, strategies and tools formulated in the ‘Digital Construction’ program, and the first experiences made from implementing the 3D work method part of the program in an ongoing building project. The discussions in the paper are placed in the complex field between choosing strategies for integrating information and communication technologies on national level, and the effects of these strategies on real life building projects.
series CAAD Futures
email anita.moum@ntnu.no
last changed 2007/07/06 10:47

_id ecaade2007_162
id ecaade2007_162
authors Ramirez, Joaquin; Russell, Peter
year 2007
title Second City
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 359-365
summary In the era of communication, the participation in internet-communities has grown to become a motor for innovation in software and community platforms. The paper describes the hypothesis that, by creating a virtual city (or a second city) a new type of social, economic and scientific network is established, which is supported through visual communication technologies. The various users bring, per se, their own intrinsic motivation and requirements to the system. Nonetheless, a personal identification with a city/neighbourhood/house/apartment can be used to awake awareness and to foster participation. This is especially important when dealing with the city inhabitants. City modelling itself has been carried out for over a decade. Projects such as the city model of Graz have shown how city models can be established so as to be scalable for new information (Dokonal et al 2000). Furthermore, these city models have been used in the education of future architects and urban planners. The project described here moves in the opposite direction: the model moves out of the classroom to an interdisciplinary city-model-platform. The work described here is the conceptual model for a multi-dimensional data set that models the city. This has spawned a host of other projects using the model as a foundation for further interactivity development and the extension of the model itself. The paper describes the structure of the conceptual model and the first experience of incorporating diverse projects such those mentioned above. The model also is structured so as to be compatible with the XML standards being developed for city information (CityGML). The goal of the project is to create a data set describing the city that not only describes the geometry, but also the history (including planned histories) and nature of the city. In contrast to virtual realities, which attempt to create a separate world (e.g. Second Life), the Second City is intended as an interdisciplinary repository for the geometrical, historical and cultural information of the city.
keywords City modelling, virtual environments, web 2.0
series eCAADe
email ramirez@caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de, peter_russell@mac.com
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ascaad2007_052
id ascaad2007_052
authors Hamza, N. and M. Horne
year 2007
title Building Information Modelling: Empowering Energy Conscious Design
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 661-670
summary The increasing awareness of climate change and carbon dioxide emissions from the built environment is resulting in the need to visualize the environmental performance of buildings. One of the recent drivers in the UK has been the tightening of building regulations relating to energy consumption in buildings, mandating all buildings to be performance evaluated by accredited environmental simulation tools to test their carbon dioxide emission against set targets. Currently there is major confusion on all levels from architects to building control officers and contractors on how to engrain energy consciousness principles in the design and construction of buildings. Within this context, ‘Building Information Modelling’ that is linked to ‘Building Performance Modelling’ is increasingly being looked upon as a tool to facilitate the communication between the design team and contractors and to provide a transparent information model on the specification and targeted energy consumption of all new/ refurbished buildings to all parties involved. In this paper, analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of current efforts to combine those two comprehensive databases will be investigated. A sample of main software development companies, architects and contractors, using semi-structured interviews is undertaken to find out how Building Integrated Modelling (BIM) and Building Performance Modelling (BPM) can support the design and construction teams to deliver energy conscious buildings.
series ASCAAD
email n.hamza@newcastle.ac.uk
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
email langenhan@tum.de
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2007_657
id caadria2007_657
authors Chotsiri, Sirin; Siwarak Suwannasan, Wipaporn Lamool and Monchai Bunyavipakul
year 2007
title The Development of E-Groupware in the Collaborative Work of Architectural Design
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary The emergence of the computer networking, especially the internet has been a very useful tool for the construction industry. The AEC (AEC: Architectural, Engineering and Construction) has adopted the computer technology to the collaboration design work (CSCW: Computer Support Collaborative Work). It used to be that people work together in the real physical space like an office or design studio but now in the virtual design place. This is to accommodate the work that is being done among the designers or construction teams that are far apart. Through Web Application these people can work together from different location.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id caadria2007_057
id caadria2007_057
authors Kouide, Tahar; G. Paterson
year 2007
title BIM as a Viable Collaborative Working Tool: A Case Study
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary For the majority of design practices in the construction industry the use of CAD systems have been used to merely automate hand drafting (Cohen 2003). This is the traditional way of working that has changed very little since the introduction of commercial CAD systems. These practices as means of communication are being replaced by a virtual building model environment which encapsulates all of the information for an entire construction project and thereby enables computer-supported co-operative working practices. (Newton 2003) This study aims to determine whether Building Information Modelling (BIM) can, and whether it will, replace traditional communication media as the standard in the industry for computersupported co-operative working practices in the Architecture Engineering and construction (AEC) sector. The bulk of the research comprises an extensive literature review looking at the principal reasons behind the development of BIM, the potential advantages and drawbacks of the technology, and the barriers and obstacles which inhibit its adoption as a means of computer-supported co-operative working. The findings of the study have been validated and analysed against current practice in the field through a live case study analysis of the on-going Heathrow airport Terminal 5 Project in London (UK). The Terminal 5 case study demonstrates that present software tools, although usable, still present significant implicit technical constraints to wider implementation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The case study has also shown that in practice, the success of BIM depends just as much on the working practices and ethos of participants in the project chain as it does on the capabilities of the software itself, in particular the willingness of practitioners to change traditional working practices. The case study has shown that the present investment, in terms of time, cost, and effort required to implementing the technology means that BIM is unlikely to be adopted on small simple projects where conventional CAD is still adequate. It also highlighted that BIM tools currently available are not yet adequately developed to satisfy the requirements of the many procurement and especially contractual arrangements which presently exist and many firms will be frightened off by the unresolved legal issues which may arise from implementing BIM in their practices.
series CAADRIA
email g.j.paterson@rgu.ac.uk
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id caadria2007_661
id caadria2007_661
authors Lamool, W.; S. Chotsiri, S. Suvarnnasara and M. Bunyavipakul
year 2007
title The Development of E-Groupware in the Collaborative Work of Architectural Design
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary The emergence of the computer networking, especially the internet has been a very useful tool for the construction industry, The AEC (AEC: Architectural, Engineering and Construction) has adopted the computer technology to the collaboration design work (CSCW: Computer Support Collaborative Work). It used to be that people work together in the real physical space like an office or design studio but now in the virtual design place. This is to accommodate the work that is being done among the designers or construction teams that are far apart. Though Web Application these people can work together from different.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ascaad2007_055
id ascaad2007_055
authors Mallasi, Z.
year 2007
title Applying generative modeling procedure to explore architectural forms
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 697-712
summary Computer generated 3D forms using generative procedures have matured in the last decade and now considered as a tangible approach for realizing architectural design ideas. As fascinating as the approach might be, it is still lacking actual application in the early architectural design process. There are many reasons for this, among them: it has many implications over the architectural design process mainly the practicality of design during the conceptual design stage; it is cumbersome to develop construction drawings for complex architectural forms; and the necessity for producing conceptual designs quickly in less time as design requirements and decisions are constantly being changed. This paper initially reports on a practical development of a computer program which generates architectural massing designs based on integrating forms generation technique in a design scheme. The influence for this development was inspired by Spirolaterals technique used in generating complex 3D architectural forms that are based on parametric shape configuration. The development has three goals: to review the principles for constructing generative forms in the conceptual design stage using simple CAD tools, to assist in the production of design schemes based on a few basic shapes and rules, and to explore 3D forms finding and generation without the need to write a complicated computer program that are difficult to produce by hand. The development resulted in generating an interesting number of 3D compositions. The author applied this technique to experiment during the production of a design scheme. The paper hence describes the current development of ArchiGen tool to produces generative 3D forms utilizing ArchiCAD © GDL programming language. The tool is embedded within ArchiCAD for generating 3D shapes. One of the main features of this implementation is that users are able to sketch 2D shapes and the tool will deform its three dimensional generation. Moreover, the user being able to abstract the architectural character from the resulting complex 3D shapes. This development extends current related work by allowing the designer to load shapes into ArchiGen which acts as vocabulary of shapes for a design scheme constraints. It is intended from this work to inspire future work focusing on using generative tools in the early conceptual design stages.
series ASCAAD
email zaki.mallasi@perkinswill.com
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ascaad2007_057
id ascaad2007_057
authors Menges, A.
year 2007
title Computational Morphogenesis: Integral Form Generation and Materialization Processes
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 725-744
summary Natural morphogenesis, the process of evolutionary development and growth, derives polymorphic systems that obtain their complex form, organisation and versatility from the interaction of system intrinsic material capacities and external environmental influences and forces. One striking aspect of natural morphogenesis is that formation and materialisation processes are always inherently and inseparably related. In stark contrast to these integral development processes of material form, architecture as a material practice is mainly based on design approaches that are characterised by a hierarchical relationship that prioritises the definition and generation of form over its subsequent materialisation. This paper will present an alternative approach to design that entails unfolding morphological complexity and performative capacity without differentiating between form generation and materialisation processes. Based on an understanding of material systems not as derivatives of standardized building systems and elements but rather as generative drivers in the design process this approach seeks to develop and employ computational techniques and digital fabrication technologies to unfold innate material capacity and specific latent gestalt. Extending the concept of material systems by embedding their material characteristics, geometric behaviour, manufacturing constraints and assembly logics within integral computational models promotes an understanding of form, material and structure not as separate elements, but rather as complex interrelations in polymorphic systems resulting from the response to varied input and environmental influences and derived through the logics and constraints of advanced manufacturing processes. These processes will be explained along 8 research projects.
series ASCAAD
email achimmenges@aaschool.ac.uk
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ecaade2007_042
id ecaade2007_042
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 2007
title Pattern Language and Embedded Knowledge in Building Information Modeling
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 457-464
summary When Christopher Alexander (1977), trained both as a mathematician and an architect, published his seminal work “The Pattern Language” in the 1970’s and introduced the concept of “pattern language”, computers were still in their infancy, CAD did not exist as we know it today, and computer information modeling was not even in the radar screen of researchers. Design communication simply meant manual drafting. With the concept of ‘pattern language” (http://www.patternlanguage.com/), Alexander proposed a systematic method for dealing with complexity, which proved itself to be more relevant than ever in the digital age. The concept is often cited by computer scientists as a precursor to object oriented modeling. This study explores the potential of “pattern language” for structuring building information and design knowledge within the framework of the recent developments in building information modeling (BIM). In this article, comparisons to the approach taken by the software engineering industry who embraced the idea of “patterns” as a systematic way to software development are also made. While Alexander’s pattern language proposes a method with which the designer can incorporate his/her experiences and design vision systematically into the process of designing, software industry’s approach to patterns describes a method for providing problem and solution patterns (i.e. prototypes) that can be used repeatedly during software development. There is obviously a significant difference between the original intent of the “pattern language” and the way it was later used in other fields including software engineering and business solutions. At the cross section of architectural design and software engineering, Building Information Modeling (BIM) software can benefit from carefully incorporating a combination of these two approaches into its structure as patterns.
keywords Building information modeling, Christopher Alexander, pattern language, software development
series eCAADe
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id caadria2007_511
id caadria2007_511
authors Rügemer, Jörg
year 2007
title Various Media in the Design Process and Methodology
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary The paper describes the mergence of traditional architectural design processes with approaches that rely on digital media and software for the creation of architectural space. The depicted projects are part of a ‘work in progress’ process, with a recent studio that is set up to apply the so far accumulated experiences. Within the projects, focus is on those design phases where the applied media and methodology is changed and where the back and forth between different media and the depth of their implementation is perceptible in, and / or has a significant influence on the design itself. Through a line of successive experiments, the paper explains the development of a possible method that utilizes a variety of today’s accessible tools in architecture, making use of phenomena that appear when changing from one tool to another. Goal is to avoid limitations that are existent by the solely employment of one media or method, and to understand the fusion between different media as an inspiring momentum to develop the design further. The paper draws a line from an initially experienced and analyzed design method over several projects in practice and academia to conclude with a possible design method that could be established successfully in both fields of architectural teaching and practice. Initial experiences had been drawn from professional practice, in which the digital realm was limited to a support device of the design process. The first project that is described in the paper, explored the employment of digital media as a possible tool to drive the design process in a broader sense. The studio setting was organized as a laboratory for the exploration of the change of applied media. Focus was on the influence on the design progress. The design method required of the studios participants was not exclusively based on an architectural program, but on an initial, very conceptual process with an artistic approach, based on personal experiences of each participant. This was meant to detach the students entirely from architectural processes and mindsets they had picked up so far. Parallel to that kind of an intellectual process, studio participants learned to handle Maya as the 3D modeling software of their choice. Both the technical knowledge and the artistic projects were merged in a second project phase, in which participants had to further develop their work by applying a very effective mix of various design tools. Using digital media as a parametric design generator, subsequent projects were developed. The task for the designers here were to decide what kind of algorithm could be applied to which process and when it was to be stopped for the best result. Applying such an automatism successfully to the design process, the employment of traditional media and methodology remained, to adapt the digital driven schemes to the required design task. The diverse design experiments demonstrate important aspects when merging complex design and animation software with traditional design processes. To achieve good architectural design results, all examined projects showed that traditional design methods with its physical models are hardly replaceable to its full extent by other media, but digital media are able to strengthen design processes and invite designers to explore new means of design work.
series CAADRIA
email ruegemer@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id bsct_senses
id bsct_senses
authors Senses, Nilufer
year 2007
title Foam Structures: A Comparative Structural Efficiency Analysis Based on the Building Case "Watercube"
source Vienna University of Technology; Building Science & Technology
summary Foam structure in macro-scale has arisen as a new type of large span building structure recently which is a product of cooperation of advanced structural design, radical architectural design approach, and computer and software technology, and efficiency of foam structure became an important question to answer which could help further structural improvements. This study analyses efficiency of large span foam structure relative to conventional large span building structures with a parametric simulation method. Space frames are a special case of conventional large span structures one compared with foam structures, because it satisfies criteria such as being lightweight and three-dimensional as foam structure. Analysis is based on the comparison of base cases of foam model and space frame model, which are developed on light of real projects the Water Cube and the Symbol Zone of Expo’70, based on the parameters structural depth, weight and displacement, and vertical and horizontal load cases. During the analysis structural behavior of base cases were simulated by using a special structural behavior simulation program. It was found that foam model is more efficient than space frame model in terms of structural depth which is an important issue for large span building structures from both architectural and engineering point of view. Capability of spanning large distance with significantly less structural depth makes foam structure a preferable, new generation, steel structure for large spans. Moreover, the development process of base case foam model demonstrated the critical importance of geometrical design concerns of foam structure. Structural behavior simulations were exposed that structural optimization is one of the vitally important process of structural design of the foam structure.
keywords Foam structure, space frame, geometrical optimization, structural optimization, structural behavior simulation
series thesis:MSc
email buildingscience@tuwien.ac.at
more http://cec.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2007/07/16 15:51

_id sigradi2008_180
id sigradi2008_180
authors Vincent, Charles
year 2008
title Gulliver in the land of Generative Design
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The current trend in architectural design towards architectural computing has been treated both from a philosophical standing point and as an operational systems’ problem, in a quest for explications which could at last break ground for a more broad development and adoption of design tools. As Kostas Terzidis (2007) puts it, the intuitiveness that architects have put on so high a pedestal seems to be the central issue to be dealt with by both views. There seems to be no apparent shortcut toward the reconciliation between traditional practice and new media and most certainly it is not only a problem of interface design, but one of design method clarification and reinterpretation of those methods into computing systems. Furthermore, there’s no doubt left as to whether computing systems can generate such new patterns as to impact our own understanding of architecture. But even if computer algorithms can make possible the exploration of abstract alternatives to an abstract initial idea, as in Mathematica and Processing, the issue of relating abstract and geometric representations of human centered architecture lays in the hands of architects, programmers or, better yet, architect-programmers. What seems now to be the relevant change is that architectural design might escape from the traditional sequence embedded in the need – program – design iterations – solution timeline, substituted by a web of interactions among differing experimental paths, in which even the identification of needs is to be informed by computing. It is interesting to note that the computational approach to architectural design has been praised for the formal fluidity of bubbles and Bezier shapes it entails and for the overcoming of functionalist and serialization typical of modern architecture. That approach betrays a high degree of canonic fascination with the tools of the trade and very little connection to the day to day chores of building design. On the other hand, shall our new tools and toys open up new ways of thinking and designing our built landscape? What educational issues surface if we are to foster wider use of the existing technologies and simultaneously address the need to overtake mass construction? Is mass customization the answer for the dead end modern architecture has led us to? Can we let go the humanist approach begun in Renascence and culminated in Modernism or shall we review that approach in view of algorithmic architecture? Let us step back in time to 1726 when Swift’s ‘Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver’ was first published. In Swift’s fierce critic of what seemed to him the most outrageous ideas, he conceived a strange machine devised to automatically write books and poetry, in much the same generative fashion that now, three centuries later, we begin to cherish. “Every one knew how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences; whereas by his contrivance, the most ignorant person at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour, may write books in philosophy, poetry, politicks, law, mathematics and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study. He then led me to the frame, about the sides whereof all his pupils stood in ranks. It was twenty foot square, placed in the middle of the room. The superficies was composed of several bits of wood, about the bigness of a dye, but some larger than others. They were all linked together by slender wires. These bits of wood were covered on every square with paper pasted on them; and, on these papers were written all the words of their language in their several moods, tenses, and declensions, but without any order. The professor then desired me to observe, for he was going to set his engine at work. The pupils at his command took each of them hold of an iron handle, whereof there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame; and giving them a sudden turn, the whole disposition of words was entirely changed. He then commanded six and thirty of the lads to read the several lines softly as they appeared upon the frame; and where they found three or four words together that might make part of a sentence, they dictated to the four remaining boys who were scribes. This work was repeated three or four times, and at every turn the engine was so contrived, that the words shifted into new places, as the square bits of wood moved upside down.” (Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, A Voyage to Balnibarbi) What astonishing forecast did Swift show in that narrative that, in spite of the underlying incredulity and irony, still clarifies our surprise when faced to what might seem to some of us just an abandonment of all that architects and designers have cherished: creativeness and inventiveness. Yet, we could argue that such a radical shift in paradigm occurred once when master builders left the construction ground and took seat at drafting boards. The whole body of design and construction knowledge was split into what now seem to us just specialties undertaken by more and more isolated professionals. That shift entailed new forms of representation and prediction which now each and all architects take for granted. Also, Cartesian space representation turned out to be the main instrument for professional practice, even if one can argue that it is not more than the unfolding of stone carving techniques that master builders and guilds were so fond of. Enter computing and all its unfolding, i.e. DNA coding, fractal geometry, generative computing, nonlinear dynamics, pattern generation and cellular automata, as a whole new chapter in science, and compare that to conical perspective, descriptive and analytical geometry and calculus, and an image begins to form, delineating a separation between architect and digital designer. In previous works, we have tried approaching the issues regarding architects education in a more consensual way. But it seems now that the whole curricular corpus might be changed as well. The very foundations upon which we prepare future professionals shall change, not only in College, but in High School as well. In this paper, we delve further into the disconnect between current curricula and digital design practices and suggest new disciplinary grounds for a new architectural education.
keywords Educational paradigm; Design teaching; Design methods;
series SIGRADI
email cvincent@mackenzie.br
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2007_094
id ecaade2007_094
authors Buattour, Mohamed; Halin, Gilles; Bignon, Jean Claude
year 2007
title Management system for a Virtual Cooperative Project
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 125-131
summary The paper presents on-going research aimed at the support of the management of building projects and the aid cooperative design. Today, The use of systems adapted to the cooperative design assistance for the building domain is complex. This results from the complexity of the cooperative work (difficulties in tracking actor’s work, lack of most of the required information, coordination problems, implicit nature of most of the construction activities etc.) The paper will briefly review two data exchanging modes that we had defined. After, on the basis of this concept of cooperative design we describe a new model of a virtual environment aimed to takes into account the relational organization of the project and the semantic meaning of works. This research represents a new approach because it not based on management of documents but on all data relative to works. Finally, we use this new model for defining a design-aided tool, to deduce advantages and limits of the “Virtual Cooperative Project”. This system lets geographically dispersed project actors model the project context of a building. More specifically, it allows interpreting, using and exchanging project works in a centralized virtual environment during the building life cycle. This system uses IFC objects which associate in the same model the semantic and the 3D representation of building works.
keywords Cooperation model, cooperative work design, project management, digital mock-up
series eCAADe
email bouattou@crai.archi.fr, halin@crai.archi.fr, bignon@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id acadia07_040
id acadia07_040
authors Hyde, Rory
year 2007
title Punching Above Your Weight: Digital Design Methods and Organisational Change in Small Practice
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 40-47
summary Expanding bodies of knowledge imply expanding teams to manage this knowledge. Paradoxically, it can be shown that in situations of complexity—which increasingly characterise the production of architecture generally—the small practice or small team could be at an advantage. This is due to the increasingly digital nature of the work undertaken and artefacts produced by practices, enabling production processes to be augmented with digital toolsets and for tight project delivery networks to be forged with other collaborators and consultants (Frazer 2006). Furthermore, as Christensen argues, being small may also be desirable, as innovations are less likely to be developed by large, established companies (Christensen 1997). By working smarter, and managing the complexity of design and construction, not only can the small practice “punch above its weight” and compete with larger practices, this research suggests it is a more appropriate model for practice in the digital age. This paper demonstrates this through the implementation of emerging technologies and strategies including generative and parametric design, digital fabrication, and digital construction. These strategies have been employed on a number of built and un-built case-study projects in a unique collaboration between RMIT University’s SIAL lab and the award-winning design practice BKK Architects.
series ACADIA
email rory@b-k-k.com.au
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

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