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_id 39fb
authors Langton, C.G.
year 1996
title Artificial Life
source Boden, M. A. (1996). The Philosophy of Artificial Life, 39-94.New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press
summary Artificial Life contains a selection of articles from the first three issues of the journal of the same name, chosen so as to give an overview of the field, its connections with other disciplines, and its philosophical foundations. It is aimed at those with a general background in the sciences: some of the articles assume a mathematical background, or basic biology and computer science. I found it an informative and thought-provoking survey of a field around whose edges I have skirted for years. Many of the articles take biology as their starting point. Charles Taylor and David Jefferson provide a brief overview of the uses of artificial life as a tool in biology. Others look at more specific topics: Kristian Lindgren and Mats G. Nordahl use the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma to model cooperation and community structure in artificial ecosystems; Peter Schuster writes about molecular evolution in simplified test tube systems and its spin-off, evolutionary biotechnology; Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz presents some examples of visual modelling of morphogenesis, illustrated with colour photographs; and Michael G. Dyer surveys different kinds of cooperative animal behaviour and some of the problems synthesising neural networks which exhibit similar behaviours. Other articles highlight the connections of artificial life with artificial intelligence. A review article by Luc Steels covers the relationship between the two fields, while another by Pattie Maes covers work on adaptive autonomous agents. Thomas S. Ray takes a synthetic approach to artificial life, with the goal of instantiating life rather than simulating it; he manages an awkward compromise between respecting the "physics and chemistry" of the digital medium and transplanting features of biological life. Kunihiko Kaneko looks to the mathematics of chaos theory to help understand the origins of complexity in evolution. In "Beyond Digital Naturalism", Walter Fontana, Guenter Wagner and Leo Buss argue that the test of artificial life is to solve conceptual problems of biology and that "there exists a logical deep structure of which carbon chemistry-based life is a manifestation"; they use lambda calculus to try and build a theory of organisation.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c70a
authors Lindgren, Christina Axelsson
year 1988
title Forest Visual Variation as a Recreative Force
source Knowledge-Based Design in Architecture, Tips-88 (pre-proceedings) (1988 : Otaniemi). editors. John S Gero and T. Oksala. Espoo, Finland: Research Institute for Built Environment, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Architecture, pp. 149-157. includes bibliography.
summary --- A revised version of this paper has been published in the Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica series. The article presents some findings concerning the importance of forest visual variation and the possibilities to create a Forest Visual Opportunity Spectrum. In the light of suggestions on theory of recreation and of the actual multiple use planning situation of forests, the possibilities and limits of empirical studies as a tool to receive knowledge of visual aspects of forests are discussed
keywords planning, knowledge, applications, landscape
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id e7e7
authors Popova, M., Johansson, P. and Lindgren, H.
year 2001
title Case-based Reasoning in Collaborative Design: The role of product models and information structures
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 92-97
summary This paper discusses methods for information management through the rational application of IT within collaborative design. We explore the possible integration of the platforms of case-based reasoning and information structures. We examine the potential combination of existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, general applications, WWW) and standards (IFC, national classification systems) into a system for information management. We focus on the designersí use of heterogeneous information and the further development of a prototype based on product-model and process-model technology. Today, XML helps us structure various kinds of information before the system performs case-based reasoning sessions. The aim is to promote efficient and flexible information management in a casebased design process. Through the use of standardized product models, this information will be sharable and suitable for reuse and feedback. The more often the information is reused, the more general and adaptable it becomes i.e. it evolves. This scenario requires, though, efficient information management in the design office: a quality system for evaluating the information for reuse, consequent use of standardized product models and IT.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Product Models, Information Structures, Collaborative Design And Construction Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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