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_id caadria2006_217
id caadria2006_217
authors KILIAN, AXEL
year 2006
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 217-226
summary The paper demonstrates the need for advanced models of representation for circular dependency networks common in design problems that deal with multiple constraints. Constraints in a design problem are generally perceived as limitations to design exploration. The careful construction of constraint relationships can help to turn constraints into design drivers for the problem instead. Closely related to the notion that new goals may emerge from creating designs is the idea that one goal of planning may be the design activity itself (Simon 1981). The interplay of many constraints can lead to circular dependencies that make design exploration a challenge as any change causes ripples throughout the entire design construct. D’Arcy Thompson (1942) describes form as a diagram of forces. The construction of design representations that reflect such dependency networks pose a challenge and are far from exact matches of the task environment (Simon 1981). The paper proceeds in mapping these abstract observations of the circular dependencies in the design process to a chair experiment from design to fabrication giving detailed descriptions of the interdependencies of material, fabrication and aesthetic constraints. The experiment shows how those constraints were instrumental in achieving the aesthetics of the full scale prototype.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id ecaade2015_158
id ecaade2015_158
authors Kim, Do-Young; Jang, DoJin and author), Sung-AhKim
year 2015
title A Symbiotic Interaction of Virtual and Physical Models in Designing Smart Building Envelope
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 633-642
summary The building needs to be designed to minimize its environmental footprint and to be sufficiently adaptive to changing indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. The smart building envelope is an interactive system which is adaptive to environmental conditions by transforming its shape and functions. This is a kind of machine, not like a traditional building component, which should be based on integrated engineering design methods in addition to the exploration of formal aesthetics. As artistic genius or technical skill alone cannot not fully support the design of such a novel product, the design needs to be systemized by introducing a product development method such as prototyping in other industries. Prototyping needs to be integrated in school environment, even if it requires fundamental reconfiguration of current computer-based design studios. This paper aims at proposing a teaching methodology for educating the prototyping-based design of smart building envelope system in digital design studio. This methodology allows novice designers to operate interactions between virtual-physical models. And sketches are used to share ideas to other collaborators such as programming, mechanical operations without technical knowledge. The interactions between virtual-physical models and sketches contribute to not only complement virtual models and physical models, but also achieve high-performance of smart building envelope practically.
wos WOS:000372316000070
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cdc2008_245
id cdc2008_245
authors Kim, Simon and Mariana Ibanez
year 2008
title Tempus Fugit: Transitions and Performance in Activated Architecture
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 245-251
summary Meaning in architecture has isotropic instances of realization, one that can unfold during the design process and one that can be layered onto the artifact of the building; its components and forms constitute a communication flow that emerges from an abstract form of description to its physicality. The internal cognition of this condition situates the subject as the third element, one that identifies the meaning from the extant building to its proxy meaning. In this manner, narrative and aesthetics perform the actualizations (the spatial and physical sequences) so that the occupant may understand its implications.1 Architecture is thus a one-directional flow of information (the building is an inert object from which meaning is derived, its physicality is static). Even in process-driven design, the synthesis of the many and the ordered, is evident in the materiality of the architectural manifestation; the building, although presented as a result of process cannot be separated from the reading of the generative operations. 2 Rather than continue in this manner of constructing meaning from an extensive coding (joining a concept to an object) or the instantiation (producing one from a larger field of possibilities) from a version, we suggest a dialectic that is bi-directional, or even multinodal, that is, continually self-renewing in meaning and material configuration with the active participation of the occupant. This representation is one that is time-based.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id acadia15_333
id acadia15_333
authors Koltick, Nicole
year 2015
title Autonomous Botanist: the Poetic Potentials of a New Robotic Species
source ACADIA 2105: Computational Ecologies: Design in the Anthropocene [Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-53726-8] Cincinnati 19-25 October, 2015), pp. 333-341
summary This project begins by asking questions about ethics and empathy towards robots, and contemplates the future of their behavior in ways not informed by pragmatics or economy. What if a robot had a hobby? How do robots make aesthetic decisions? What is a robot’s point of view? It seeks to shift perception of robotic agency and allow the audience to embody the robotic gardeners’ vision, behavior and influence its aesthetics. By amplifying perceptual differences between humans and robots and we allow for both tangible and virtual embodiment experiences from multiple scales and perspectives.
keywords Non-anthropocentric aesthetics, speculative realism, robotics, synthetic ecologies
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2016/08/05 11:37

_id 31a4
authors Koszewski, K., Kowal, S., Rzadkiewicz, R., Slyk, J. and Wrona, S.
year 2002
title Virtual Modeling and Multimedia Presentation as the Basic Principles of CAAD Education in Warsaw School of Architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 126-129
summary Virtuality versus reality in the teaching concepts is one of the most important issues in our traditionally and professionally oriented school. Computer modelling techniques and interactive presentations as a communication media used to express students sophisticated aesthetics intentions in conceptual design are the subject of our peculiar interest. The goal of our study is to find out how students may use virtual tools to communicate the design ideas.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id e579
authors Koszewski, Krzysztof and Wrona, Stefan K.
year 1995
title The Role of Multimedia in the Presentation of Students´ Designs
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 273-280
summary Traditional ways of an aesthetic expression like hand drawing and renderings, painting and artistic graphics, are now enriched by computer multimedia techniques. The multimedia techniques are used in the Department of Architecture of Warsaw University of Technology for presentation of student´s design. The connected media, like computer renderings, animations and sound are used to express sophisticated aesthetics intentions by students in their conceptual designs. In the past two years, three inexpensive multimedia editors were tested on PC´s: Tempra Media Author, HSC Interactive and Multimedia Director 4.0. The most convenient, but not excellent, for our purposes was The Tempra Media Author. Several aspects of multimedia presentation were analyzed and some suggestions for the future were done.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id sigradi2012_314
id sigradi2012_314
authors Kotsopoulos, Sotirios; Farina, Carla; Casalegno, Federico
year 2012
title Designing an Interactive Architectural Element for a Responsive House
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 369-372
summary This paper presents the features and the reasoning followed in the process of designing a programmable architectural element for a prototype house – a interactive façade involving a matrix of programmable windows. The façade contributes to the precise adjustment of view, airflow, solar radiation, and heat, by allowing the automated modification of the chromatism, the angle and the light transmittance of each individual window.
keywords Electroactive materials; autonomous control; interactive façade; performance; aesthetics
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id c669
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1997
title On the Evaluation of Architectural Figural Goodness: A Foundation for Computational Architectural Aesthetic
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 245-266
summary The first stage of an investigation into the quantification and computability of architectural aesthetics is reported. Issues considered include the function, sources and role of aesthetic analysis in architecture in the framework of a descriptive approach to architectural analysis and design. The main focus is on the applicability of the concept of figural goodness to architectural aesthetics and the derivation of a representation for architectural form suitable to this purpose.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:30

_id 3465
authors Kruger, M.W.
year 1993
title Artificial Reality
source Addison-Wesley
summary This book by artificial reality pioneer Myron Krueger presents a view of our future interaction with machines, when computer systems will sense our needs and respond to them. In its unique melding of aesthetics and technology, Artificial Reality II shows how simulated worlds allow people to interact with computers in profoundly new ways for problem-solving and recreation.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia12_269
id acadia12_269
authors Lally, Sean
year 2012
title Architecture of an Active Context
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 269-276
summary As we stand with our feet on earth’s outermost surface we build an architecture today that is much like it was several thousand years earlier, in an attempt to extend that outer shell with one of our own making. Artificial masses are built from a refinement of this existing geologic layer into materials of stone, steel, concrete, and glass that assemble to produce new pockets of space through the buildings they create. However, the sixth century BC writer Thales of Miletus put a different perspective on this: he insisted that we live, in reality, not on the summit of a solid earth but at the bottom of an ocean of air (Holmyard 1931). And so, as architecture continues to build up the outermost layer of earth’s surface through a mimicking, embellishing, and enhancing of the materials which it comes from, it raises the question of why we have not brought a similar relationship to the materialities at the bottom of this “ocean” of air to create the spaces we call architecture. If you were looking to level a complaint with the architectural profession, stating that it has not been ambitious enough in scope would not be one. Architects have never shied away from the opportunity to design everything from the building’s shell to the teaspoon used to stir your sugar in its matching cup. But it would seem that the profession has developed a rather large blind spot in terms of what it sees as a malleable material with which to engage. Architects have made assumptions as to what is beyond our scope of action, refraining from engaging a range of material variables due to a belief that the task would be too great or simply beyond our physical control. So even though we are enveloped by them continuously, both on the exterior as well as the interior of our buildings, it must be assumed that the particles, waves, and frequencies of energy that move around us are thought by architects to be too faint and shaky to unload upon them any heavy obligations, that they are too unwieldy for us to control to create the physical boundaries of separation, security, and movement required of architecture. This has resulted in a cultivated set of blinders that essentially defines architecture as a set of mediation devices (surfaces, walls, and inert masses) for tempering the environmental context it is situated in from the individuals and activities within. The spaces we inhabit are defined by their ability to decide what gets in and what stays out (sunlight, precipitation, winds). We place our organizational demands and aesthetic opinions on the surfaces that mediate these variables rather than seeing them as available for manipulation as a building material on their own. The intention here is to recalibrate the materialities that make up that environmental context to build architecture. The starting point is a rather naive question: can we design the energy systems that course in and around us daily as an architectural material so as to take on the needs of activities, securities, and lifestyles associated with architecture? Can the variables that we would normally mediate against instead be heightened and amplified so as to become the architecture itself? That which many would incorrectly dismiss as simply “air” today—thought to be homogeneous, scale-less, and vacant due in part to the limits of our human sensory system to perceive more fully otherwise—might tomorrow be further articulated, populated, and layered so as to become a materiality that will build spatial boundaries, define activities of individuals and movement, and act as architectural space. Our environmental context consists of a diverse range of materials (particles and waves of energy, spectrum of light, sound waves, and chemical particles) that can be manipulated and formed to meet our needs. The opportunity before us today is to embrace the needs of organizational structures and aesthetics by designing the active context that surrounds us through the material energies that define it.
keywords Material energies
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id caadria2009_056
id caadria2009_056
authors Lee, Ya-Chieh; Ming-Chyuan Ho
year 2009
title On The Design Communication of Cultural Image
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 401-410
summary In this era, people are no longer satisfied with standardized products. Designers need to implement unique product semantics to attract customers to buy the products. According to this reason, designers are developing a new design approach that puts cultural elements into their products so that they can make people reappreciate their own culture and history. The Olympics is a global event which involves various sport competitions. Before the Beijing Olympic Games, many host nations used to promote their culture through selling a variety of merchandise. It is the first time for the Olympic Games to take place in China which means that it is obviously the right timing to see cultural symbols of China in the merchandises created by the Chinese design team. These designs had introduced Chinese imageries to the whole world. As generally known, traditional culture of Taiwan actually took root from China. Taiwan owns the same ancient history and materials like China. This study explores the cultural identity and analyses the cultural design elements of China. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is taken as case study in this research, because it helps people think how to create new value from their own culture. Furthermore, this paper proposes some suggestions on how to create design which represents the image of Taiwan.
keywords Aesthetics, cultural identity, image design
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia06_548
id acadia06_548
authors Lewis, K., Kentnar, J.
year 2006
title 110% Juice
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 548-549
summary New England’s seacoast is an active, working landscape. Here, with long history of whaling, sailing, and fishing, people have lived comfortably next to their economic infrastructure. Recent infrastructure projects, such as Deer Island Water Treatment Facility and the Big Dig, have embraced landscape as a way to facilitate modern “live / work” relationships.Wind turbines are part of the working landscape. So are ferries, commercial fishing, and cranberries. All clean, prosperous, and socially vibrant industry, we see the Cape Wind Project as a way to bring these landscape industries closer together, and to reestablish the vision of Cape Cod as a working landscape.The current wind proposal offers 100% efficiency with 0% consideration of the view. The turbines’ current configuration produces a view that is uneven and disorganized. Efficiency doesn’t have to be lost at the expense of aesthetics. By proposing a circle of turbines rather than a grid, an even perspective is provided for all of the cape and the islands (no strange bunches, as with the grid); the turbines are less dense, allowing one to see through them, and not just at them; service travel between turbines is shortened – 77 miles of travel for the grid versus 46 miles for the circle. By becoming larger, the effect of the circular array has become smaller.
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id caadria2009_186
id caadria2009_186
authors Lim, Chor-Kheng
year 2009
title Digital CAD/CAM Media Realizes Chinese Calligraphy Aesthetics in Architectural Design
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 225-234
summary This paper attempts to explore a design method that incorporates the concept of ancient Chinese Art aesthetics into modern architectural form and space. Through the Case Study, a preliminary framework of freeform design process in using CAD/CAM media is concluded. It reveals the digitalized design process of artistic freeform space and shows Chinese calligraphy aesthetics in contemporary architecture.
keywords Chinese Art: aesthetics; calligraphy; CAD/CAM media; digital design process
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2012_041
id caadria2012_041
authors Lin, Yifeng and Shanshan Shen
year 2012
title Designing a performance-oriented house envelope based on a parametric approach: An integrated method
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 507–516
summary Conventional house envelope design methods often generate few alternatives related to meeting living comfort and building environmental requirements. However, these design methods are increasingly facing difficulties in following the dynamic climate change and advanced building performance conditions in the early stage of the design process. This paper attempts to introduce an integrated method for designing a performance-orientated house envelope in New Zealand which adopts the parametric approach. This approach can guide and assist designers to make a well-informed decision, which can satisfy both aesthetics and energy performance, and gain more efficiency for the design process in the early stage of housing performance simulation.
keywords Performance-oriented house envelope design; integrated parametric design; dynamic approach
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id ga9807
id ga9807
authors Loocke, Philip Van
year 1998
title Consequences for practical aesthetics and for aesthetical theory of the insertion of principles from quantum theory in cellular automata
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary A cellular automaton that includes some principles from quantum theory is considered. The automaton generates forms of an aesthetic nature. At every time step, a form grows with a single cell. This cell is selected with a selection probability that is determined by an amplitude. If the algorithm is run with selection of the cell of maximal amplitude at every time step, a type of form results that is called 'platonic'. Such forms typically have higher aesthetic complexity than their non-platonic counterparts. The case of selection probabilities determined by squares of amplitudes has a strong analogy with quantum theory. This analogy is elaborated by consideration of forms that have mutual correlations. These correlations can be of a classical nature, of a quantum mechanical type, or of a type that is termed 'super-correlation'.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id caadria2009_278
id caadria2009_278
authors Lostritto, Carl
year 2009
title Scripting Animation
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 747-754
summary Relationships are amplified and collapsed together as animate surfaces in the formal and spatial manifestation of design parameters. Animation is demonstrated as a medium to express topologies, as each frame is the resultant of a programmed serious of computations, the result of which varies with a parameter: effectively, time. Related conditions are parameterized through the design of algorithms as a means of direct translation into animation. Interrelated forces and limits can conversely congeal into statics with animate qualities. Process and product merge to create a language of phenomenological effects and patterns. While animation is exploited to represent parametric relationships there is a maintained awareness of time and space. The systemization and codification of design “problems” simultaneously facilitates functional, solution-driven architecture. The output is characterized by complex, performative, and specific solutions uniquely relevant to emerging models for fabrication and construction. Usage requirements and site conditions carry the weight of information-based contexts and experience-based symbols as fuel for the inherently cyclical process.
keywords algorithm: animation; scripting; computation; aesthetics
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ascaad2010_135
id ascaad2010_135
authors Lostritto, Carl
year 2010
title Computation Without Computers
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 135-144
summary This work documents the implications of using physical media to teach digital design concepts, techniques, values and approaches. With the pedagogy and work of a seminar and studio across two Universities as test cases, this research seeks to prove that a parametric and algorithmic approach to architecture is most fruitfully understood as the connection between logic, mathematics and aesthetics. Students trace the indirect relationships between process and product so as to enable the application of these connections in a non-linear, exploratory and goal-flexible design process. The first phase of student work involves the creation of an image, constructed with ink or graphite on paper, that embodies a parametric aesthetic. Students are tasked articulating and performing operations, such as dividing a curve, packing shapes, and conditional transformations. Subsequently, students fabricate a surface-conscious model with modules that have the capacity to vary based on their grid parameter, using historically rooted techniques such as weaving, perforating, layering and tessellation. Digital fabrication and parametric modeling is then introduced, not as a means to a predefined end, but as another medium, capable of participating with manual techniques. As an example, a fabricated paper-based installation is generated with parametrically generating a cut-sheet, partially blind to its assembled manifestation. The hypothesis of this research is tested in more comprehensive projects that follow as environmental forces are resolved through dynamic and ambiguous visual and spatial conditions.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id ijac20064103
id ijac20064103
authors Loveridge, Russell; Strehlke, Kai
year 2006
title The Digital Ornament using CAAD/CAAM Technologies
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 1, 33-49
summary New digital technologies are challenging the traditions of the architectural design methodology, the relationship between context and design, and the dependency on skilled workmanship for the fabrication of beautiful and complex architecture. Intellectually, applications of digital technologies are also allowing for the reinvestigation, reinterpretation, and redevelopment of historical concepts, theories, and skills[1]. Our focus of ornament in this paper is presented as a constrained architectural testing ground, a reduced issue that still addresses the primary issues of geometry, aesthetics, individualism, and the transferal of design to materiality. Our work on digital ornament combines the traditionally intuitive skills of geometric & graphic manipulations with easily edited input (variables and digital images), control through parametric programming, and automated output (CNC manufacturing). The combination of these processes allows for efficient diversity and uniqueness of design, while also compensating for the increasing cost and declining availability of skilled artisans for the physical fabrication. The presented projects in teaching, research, and professional activities demonstrate our ongoing experiments with new technologies of programmed surface modeling and computer numerically controlled manufacturing (CNC manufacturing). This work has been incorporated in real world projects, both in the revitalization historic buildings, and in new applications of ornament in contemporary architecture.
keywords 3D Modeling; Parametric Design; Image Processing; Design Education; Cam
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id f920
authors Lozano, E. E.
year 1988
title Visual needs in urban environments and physical planning
source Environmental aesthetics: Theory, research, and applications. J. Nasar. New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 395-421
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

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