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_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
title APPLICATION OF SPATIAL DESIGN ABILITY IN A POSTGRADUATE COURSE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id 3ff5
authors Abbo, I.A., La Scalea, L., Otero, E. and Castaneda, L.
year 1992
title Full-Scale Simulations as Tool for Developing Spatial Design Ability
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part C, pp. 7-10
summary Spatial Design Ability has been defined as the capability to anticipate effects (psychological impressions on potential observers or users) produced by mental manipulation of elements of architectural or urban spaces. This ability, of great importance in choosing the appropriate option during the design process, is not specifically developed in schools of architecture and is partially obtained as a by-product of drawing, designing or architectural criticism. We use our Laboratory as a tool to present spaces to people so that they can evaluate them. By means of a series of exercises, students confront their anticipations with the psychological impressions produced in other people. For this occasion, we present an experience in which students had to propose a space for an exhibition hag in which architectural projects (student thesis) were to be shown. Following the Spatial Design Ability Development Model which we have been using for several years, students first get acquainted with the use of evaluation instruments for psychological impressions as well as with research methodology. In this case, due to the short period available, we reduced research to investigate the effects produced by the manipulation of only 2 independents variables: students manipulated first the form of the roof, walls and interiors elements, secondly, color and texture of those elements. They evaluated spatial quality, character and the other psychological impressions that manipulations produced in people. They used three dimensional scale models 1/10 and 1/1.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id sigradi2004_146
id sigradi2004_146
authors Alejandra Silvina Bianchi
year 2004
title Herramientas digitales en el proceso de diseño en el taller de arquitectura [Digital Tools in the Design Process within the Design Studio]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary In the knowledge of previous discussions and academic experiences with the uses of digital tools in design process, some data has been collected among teachers and students to determine: .The nowadays role of digital graphic procedures in design for architectural works.. The study has been performed through exploratory research using: interviews, questionnaires and data analysis. The results shows the advantages and disadvantages of this type of design as well as allowed to come to conclusions and recommendations about pedagogical aspects in the teaching of this subject at this educational level.
keywords Architectural design process, digital technology
series SIGRADI
email abianchi@arq.unne.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2018_1535
id sigradi2018_1535
authors Almeida, Caio; Brandão, Guilherme; Lima, Fernando; Borges, Marcos
year 2018
title Spatial Proxemics: experiments and contributions of anthropological relationships in digital media
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 1279-1284
summary Proxemics was first defined by Edward. T. Hall as being the relations between non-verbal communications in a determined space. This paper aims to promote a theoretical interpolation between diverse study fields with new contemporary urbanism paradigms supported by technology and anthropological relations. In this optics, to provide a better understanding of possible characteristics within the proxemics theory can translate into a better spatial understanding and city improvement from an analysis methodology using digital tools.
keywords Proxemics; Architecture; Urbanism; Phenomenology; Digital space
series SIGraDi
email caioaugusto.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2019/05/20 09:13

_id ecaade2017_184
id ecaade2017_184
authors Almeida, Daniel and Sousa, José Pedro
year 2017
title Tradition and Innovation in Digital Architecture - Reviewing the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 267-276
summary Please write your aToday, in a moment when digital technologies are taking command of many architectural design and construction processes, it is important to examine the place and role of traditional ones. Designed by Álvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura in collaboration with Cecil Balmond, the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005 reflects the potential of combining those two different approaches in the production of innovative buildings. For inquiring this argument, this paper investigates the development of this project from its conception to construction with a double goal: to uncover the relationship between analogical and digital processes, and to understand the architects' role in a geographically distributed workflow, which involved the use of computational design and robotic fabrication technologies. To support this examination, the authors designed and fabricated a 1:3 scale prototype of part of the Pavilion, which also served to check and reflect on the technological evolution since then, which is setting different conditions for design development and collaboration.bstract here by clicking this paragraph.
keywords Serpentine Gallery Pavilion; Computational Design; Digital Fabrication; Wooden Construction; Architectural Representation;
series eCAADe
email jsousa@arq.up.pt
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id sigradi2015_2.162
id sigradi2015_2.162
authors Almeida, Fernando; Andrade, Max
year 2015
title GIS as a catalyst tool for Smart Cities
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 1 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-135-0] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 46-50.
summary Every building has its individual and measurable role on resources consumption, waste generation and neighborhood impact within a city, and tracking this behavior is an essential task for establishing a sustainable path into a Smart City model. This paper preliminarily investigates how GIS can contribute in creating an integrated and dynamic system built to attend public utilities and urban management offices for parameters at various scales.
keywords GIS, Smart Cities, Urban Infrastructure, Public Services, Urban Management
series SIGRADI
email f@fernandoalmeida.arq.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 8ccf
authors Alvarez, Darío
year 2000
title Atravesando el portal digital: la novísima Arquitectura de los tiempos de la Internet. - (Crossing the Digital Gateway: The Latest Architecture of the Times of the Internet)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 30-33
summary Our architectonical environment is based on the material concept - entity whose control marks the relevance of the XX century: the atom. Across the threshold of the XXI century a new virtual entity - concept: the bit, spreads to became the basic unit of power - control - production, being its more dynamic evidence the phenomenon known as Internet, establishing complex relationships with groups constituted in the net like Virtual Communities, outlining metaphors that involve Urbanists and Architects inviting them as protagonist. Against this newest reality the Architect should change his vision of the typical CAAD work in relative isolation with his computer, until crossing the doors of the “digital reality”; we search to show the contemporary Architect as a manager coordinating multiple resources with different importance: into the alternative of building digital realities, inviting the architectonical students to integrated this Virtual Communities or conform his owns.
series SIGRADI
email dalvarez@posta.arq.ucv.ve, alvarezd@camelot.rect.ucv.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id b73a
authors Angelo,C.V., Bins Ely, V.H.M., Bueno,A.P., Ludvig C. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Space Syntax and the New Transportation System in the Santa Catarina Island
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 434-437
summary The paper reports an on-going research that aims at describing and analysing some of the syntactic characteristics of the urban space of Santa Catarina Island, in an attempt to evaluate its performance, more specifically its social and spatial integration and segregation. The research has been conducted with the aid of the Aximagic software, still in exam stage and not yet released to the public, a tool being developed by a group of researches of the Rio Grande do Sul Federal University and given up by Prof. Doctor Benamy Turkienicz. The software is part of a larger georeferenced program called CityZoom wich includes others tools to the comprehention of the urban morphology. This program works with graphic pictures in the inlet of data and also in the acquisition of results. The syntactic study of the Santa Catarina Island as a whole aims to obtain the comprehension of its global structure, relating it to the integrated public transportation system proposed to Florianópolis. These studies should allow an understanding of the impact the developments will have upon the urban morphology, and the new public transportation system.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ecaadesigradi2019_340
id ecaadesigradi2019_340
authors Azambuja Varela, Pedro and Sousa, José Pedro
year 2019
title Digital Expansion of Stereotomy - A semantic classification
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 1, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 387-396
summary This paper presents a critical analysis and reflection on stereotomy with the purpose of updating its theoretical discourse. Having risen to the apex of architecture technological possibilities in the 17th century, stereotomic construction lost its importance in favour of iron, steel and other materials and construction techniques brought by the Industrial Revolution. More recently, much owing to the possibilities offered by digital technologies, a resurgence of interest in the subject has spawned various researches which bring stereotomy back to the architectural discourse. Although technological applications and design innovations in service of stereotomy have developed in multiple interesting paths, there is a lack of a common theory on the subject which is capable of relating these multiple apparently diverging stereotomic approaches between each other and, maybe even more importantly, to the classical practice which sparked the development this discipline. The research presented in this paper shows how the digital tools were instrumental in bringing this tradition to architecture contemporaneity and how a current stereotomy is largely supported by these technologies, while keeping strong relations to its classic origin.
keywords stereotomy; classification; history; digital
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email pvarela@arq.up.pt
last changed 2019/08/26 20:25

_id sigradi2007_af91
id sigradi2007_af91
authors Baltazar, Ana Paula; Denise Morado Nascimento; Silke Kapp; Rodrigo Santos Marcandier Gonçalves; Sulamita Fonseca Lino; Amanda Alves Olalquiaga; Joana Vieira da Silva; Felipe José Gontijo; Mara Coelho; Pedro Arthur Novaes Magalhães
year 2007
title The intellectual property in digital interfaces and environments: The noncopyright option in the case of IDA system [A propriedade intelectual em ambientes e interfaces digitais: A opção pelo noncopyright no caso do sistema IDA]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 463-466
summary This paper presents the discussions on intellectual property regarding digital interfaces, which were crucial for MOM/LOW (Living in Other Ways) to develop the system IDA (Digital interface for supporting housing production). It introduces IDA and its conceptual framework and differentiates intellectual property and authorship. Then, it examines the arguments for copyright, indicating them as myths or disguises of other intentions. This leads to examining some anti-copyright movements concluding that they follow the same logic of register. Thus, noncopyright (no license or register) seems to be the best means to protest against the current logic as also for conveying information.
series SIGRADI
email mom@arq.ufmg.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2018_1806
id sigradi2018_1806
authors Barbosa Cabral, Sthefane Adrielly; Alejandro Nome, Carlos; Queiroz, Natália
year 2018
title Pilot study of numerical modeling tool to evaluate the thermal performance of walls according to Brazilian standards
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 286-293
summary The paper discusses a numerical modeling tool to evaluate thermal performance of building envelope according to Brazilian NBR15.220 and NBR 15.575 standards. Contemporary integrated design processes require the development of early design stage decision support mechanisms in order to optimize building performance. The development of the proposed tool focused on early stage decisions on building envelope design and integrating tool usability in the design process. Results indicate that the proposed tool provides basis for decision making that respond to Brazilian standards previously disregarded by participants. Also indicate improved understanding on parameters that affect building envelope thermal performance.
keywords Thermal performance, Numeric modeling tool, Building envelope, Evidence Based Design
series SIGraDi
email sthefane.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2019/05/20 09:14

_id ecaade2013_214
id ecaade2013_214
authors Barros, Pedro; Beirão, José and Duarte, José Pinto
year 2013
title The Language of Mozambican Slums
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 715-724
summary A shape grammar was developed for analyzing the evolution of Maputo´s slums with the strategic objective of capturing the evolution of house types and understanding the social agreements behind the spatial relations of their house elementary spaces in order to reuse such rules for the purpose of rehabilitation. This paper shows preliminary results of the research and aims at developing, based on the resulting grammars, a parametric tool able to execute morphological analyses, simulations and generate improved design solutions for the qualification of Maputo´s informal settlements.
wos WOS:000340643600074
keywords Shape grammars; urbanism; computation; regeneration; informal settlements.
series eCAADe
email prbarros.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2012_88
id sigradi2012_88
authors Borda, Adriane; Pires, Janice; de Vasconselos, Tássia Borges
year 2012
title O Desenho (didático) para o Insight [Drawing didactic for Insight]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 277-280
summary Knowledge of geometric drawing, hitherto considered previous in the training context in architecture, has little emphasis in the school curriculum. In the context this work, were recognized approaches such as shape grammar, which explain design practices, unveiling relationships of the geometric form. It was also identified practices of the Gestalt, established under the modern architecture, which sought to stimulate the student to have insights to think about geometric structures implicit in the form. From these references and digital tools, it is demonstrated the types of concepts and some of the exercises that are being used for the configuration of an learning for the insight.
keywords Geometric drawing, insight, architectural design.
series SIGRADI
email tassiav.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ijac201715302
id ijac201715302
authors Borges de Vasconselo, Tássias and David Sperling
year 2017
title From representational to parametric and algorithmic interactions: A panorama of Digital Architectural Design teaching in Latin America
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 15 - no. 3, 215-229
summary This study focuses on the context of graphic representation technologies and digital design on Architectural teaching in Latin America. From categories proposed by Oxman and Kotnik and through a mapping study framed by a systematic review in CumInCAD database, it is presented a panorama of the state-of-art of the digital design on Architectural teaching in the region, between 2006 and 2015. The results suggest a context of coexistence of representational interaction and parametric interaction, as well as a transition from one to another and the emergence of the first experiments in algorithmic interaction. As this mapping shows an ongoing movement toward Digital Architectural Design in Latin America in the last decade, and points out its dynamics in space in time, it could contribute to strengthen a crowdthinking network on this issue in the region and with other continents.
keywords Computer-aided architectural design, Digital Architectural Design teaching, interaction with digital media, levels of design computability, Latin America, mapping study
series journal
email tassiav.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2019/08/07 12:03

_id sigradi2014_338
id sigradi2014_338
authors Borges de Vasconselos, Tássia; Adriane Borda Almeida da Silva, Luisa Rodrigues Félix Dalla Vecchia
year 2014
title A parametrização como experiência prévia para a estruturação de métodos projetuais em arquitetura [Parametrization as previous experience for structuring design methods in Architecture]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 297-301
summary This study describes a didactic method for the introduction of parametric design in graphic and digital geometry courses in architectural training. It started with the recognition of the concept of parametric design and the investment in the appropriation of Grasshopper associated with Rhinoceros. Paper folding exercises were configured both physically and in the digital space. Through an interactive dynamic between traditional processes, by hand and digital, and parametric design, a learning path was defined in a playful manner which highlights the differences between methods of representation and its implications for the design action starting from a first semester of training.
keywords Parametric Design; Teaching/learning; Graphic and Digital Geometry; Architecture; Paper Folding
series SIGRADI
email tassiav.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2013_135
id sigradi2013_135
authors Borges de Vasconselos, Tássia; Adriane Borda Almeida da Silva
year 2013
title Identificação de Geometrias Implícitas na Arquitetura a Partir de Realidade Aumentada [Alignment Identification of Implicit Geometries in Architecture from Augmented Reality]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 44 - 48
summary For the initial stages of architectural training one of the strategies traditionally used is to study design cases. This exercise can help in the comprehension of implicit geometries and design processes. The use of the golden ratio, for example, is recurrent in the history of architecture. However, adequate instruments are necessary for this kind of statement. This paper demonstrates the use of Augmented Reality with this goal: virtual elements are viewed overlaying the architecture or its representation, configuring a “digital proportion measurer”. The comprehension of known architectural practices assists in structuring methods and constructing repertoires for architectural design.
keywords Architecture analysis; Geometry; Augmented reality; Digital proportion measurer
series SIGRADI
email tassiav.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2013_189
id sigradi2013_189
authors Bruscato, Underléa; Clariana Fischer Brendler; Felipe Schneider Viaro; Fábio Gonçalves Teixeira; Régio Pierre da Silva
year 2013
title Uso da Fabricação Digital e Prototipagem no Desenvolvimento do Projeto de Produto: Análises do Produto através de Simulações Digitais [Digital Manufacture and Rapid Prototyping in Product Design Development: Product Analysis through Digital Simulation]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 459 - 463
summary The aim of this paper is to design a public facilitie using both digital manufacture and rapid prototyping design methods. These new technologies have been used in product design development by some ways: helping in the comprehension of complex geometries; used as tools for analyzing the design process, thus avoiding errors in the project. The analysis were carried out using virtual simulation tests and physical prototype in reduced scale. The prototype was manufactured using the 3D printer V-Flash in the Virtual Design Laboratory – UFRGS, where positive and negatives aspects were identified and described.
keywords Digital manufacture; Rapid prototyping; Virtual simulation; Product design; Urban facilities
series SIGRADI
email arq.leiab@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 5965
authors Bueno, Ernesto and Salguero, Cesar
year 2002
title Centro Virtual de Arte Digital Venezolano - Proyecto de Titulación sobre Arquitectura para el Ciberespacio [Virtual Center of Venezuelan Digital Art - Thesis Project on Architecture for the Cyberspace ]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 180-183
summary This article talks about the development and presentation of our work of Degree Thesis, framed inside a Degree Theses restructuring process in the School of Architecture, in this case, emphasizing in virtual buildings design. The Virtual Centre of Venezuelan Digital Art project is a research and design project of a type of Arts Centre with cyberspace only presence specialized in the exhibition of Venezuelan digital art. The first part of it needed an information research, studies in the diverse ways in thatcomputers have being used for virtual museums design, the diverse focuses for the creation of this type of museums and the study of a museum model that adapts to the way this project were focused. When completing the theoretical basement, the individual proposals were developed. In general terms, the prospective results were achieved.
series SIGRADI
email ernesto@posta.arq.ucv.ve, salgueros@cantv.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2019_204
id caadria2019_204
authors Calixto, Victor, Gu, Ning and Celani, Gabriela
year 2019
title A Critical Framework of Smart Cities Development
source M. Haeusler, M. A. Schnabel, T. Fukuda (eds.), Intelligent & Informed - Proceedings of the 24th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, 15-18 April 2019, pp. 685-694
summary This paper investigates through a review of the current literature on smart cities, reflecting different concepts across different political-social contexts, seeking to contribute to the establishment of a critical framework for smart cities development. The present work provides a review of the literature of 250 selected publications from four databases (Scielo, ScienceDirect, worldwide science, and Cumincad), covering the years from 2012 to 2018. Publications were categorised by the following steps: 3RC framework proposed by Kummitha and Crutzen (2017), the main political sectors of city planning, implementation strategies, computational techniques, and organisation rules. The information was analised graphically trying to identify tendencies along the time, and also, seeking to explore future possibilities for implementations in different political-social contexts. As a case of study, Australia and Brazil were compared using the proposed framework.
keywords smart city; smart cities; literature review
series CAADRIA
email arq.victorcalixto@gmail.com
last changed 2019/04/16 08:22

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