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_id cf2005_1_82_21
id cf2005_1_82_21
authors DE VRIES Bauke and HARINK Jeroen
year 2005
title Construction Analysis during the Design Process
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 413-422
summary 4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a project planning directly from a CAD model using basic construction knowledge. A case study is discussed briefly to show the current results and the shortcomings. Finally an outlook is presented on a more advanced implementation that is (also) useful for designers.
keywords 4D CAD, design process, construction analysis, automatic planning
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 95b9
authors Devernay, F. and Faugeras, O.
year 1995
title Automatic Calibration and Removal of Distortion from scenes of structured environments
source Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Investigate and Trial Image Processing, 2567, SPIE, San Diego, CA, July 1995
summary Most algorithms in 3-D Computer Vision rely on the pinhole camera model because of its simplicity, whereas video optics, especially low-cost wide-angle lens, generate a lot of non-linear distortion which can be critical. To ønd the distortion parameters of a camera, we use the following fundamental property: a camera follows the pinhole model if and only if the projection of every line in space onto the camera is a line. Consequently, if we ønd the transformation on the video image so that every line in space is viewed in the transformed image as a line, then we know how to remove the distortion from the image. The algorithm consists of ørst doing edge extraction on a possibly distorted video sequence, then doing polygonal approximation with a large tolerance on these edges to extract possible lines from the sequence, and then ønding the parameters of our distortion model that best transform these edges to segments. Results are presented on real video images, compared with distortion c...
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2f44
authors Diaz, Monica
year 2001
title Aplicación del vba en el diseño arquitectónico: diseño de paredes tomando en cuenta el aislamiento acústico aéreo [Application of the Vba in an Architectural Design Case: Walls Design with the Aerial Sound Insulation]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 216-227
summary Development an application using an object and events language as VBA can reduce the time to programming because it is more intuitive and you can have libraries with procedures. This type of application makes easier to work on the architecture design: it provides information to the architect and guide him in taking the best decision. The time of designing walls considering the acoustical isolation were reduced using a VBA application. The purpose of the present work is to develop an automatic, visual and interactive tool that using a 3D drawing CAD and a object language guide the architect in the design of walls considering the noise from outside and helping the acoustical comfort.
series other
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id cf2009_458
id cf2009_458
authors Dillenburger, Benjamin; Braach, Markus and Hovestadt, Ludger
year 2009
title Building design as individual compromise between qualities and costs: A general approach for automated building generation under permanent cost and quality control
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 458-471
summary We introduce an evolutionary design approach for the automatic arrangement of a predefined space program on a given site. The design goal is to distribute floor spaces while ensuring the essential building performance and usage. The presented evolutionary strategy is applied to acquire optimal design solutions considering both environmental conditions and inner organization under diversified fitness functions. The evaluation process consists of the direct analysis of the spatial network and the physical factors in an adequate accuracy. The method provides a fast generation of qualified volumetric studies. The resulting buildings become a manifested compromise between qualities and cost.
keywords Evolutionary strategy, multi-fitness criteria, dual graph representation, network analysis, building envelope
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id caadria2016_703
id caadria2016_703
authors Ding, Yakui; Tomohiro Fukuda, Nobuyoshi Yabuki, Takashi Michikawa and Ali Motamedi
year 2016
title Automatic Measurement System of Visible Greenery Ratio Using Augmented Reality
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 703-712
summary Greening has been promoted to improve the living condi- tions in urban environments. Quantification of greenery is an im- portant issue to identify the criteria for stakeholders in the process of greening. This research focuses on the quantification of visible green- ery ratio which is defined as the amount of greenery in the field of vi- sion. Some measurement methods of visible greenery ratio have been already proposed. However, the quantification process is usually time consuming and prone to human errors due to manual operations by us- ing an image processing software. Therefore, in this research, the au- thors developed an automated measurement system based on image processing technology for the efficient visible greenery ratio meas- urement. In the verification experiment, the proposed method achieved similar results for extracted pixels of green areas as the tradi- tional manual method, with decreased calculation time. Furthermore, in addition to measuring the current ratio of greenery, this system can visualize possible future changes in visible greenery by adding plant- ing (landscape) design models in an Augmented Reality (AR) envi- ronment. Using the proposed method, an ideal greening environment can be designed and evaluated by end-users, more intuitively. The de- veloped design system is expected to eventually result in increasing the amount of greenery in the urban environment.
keywords Visible greenery ratio; image processing; automatic measurement tool; augmented reality
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id 9e26
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen,
year 1999
title The right tool at the right time : investigation of freehand drawing as an interface to knowledge based design tools
source College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology
summary Designers use different symbols and configurations in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. For example, when thinking about spatial arrangements, they draw bubble diagrams; when thinking about natural lighting, they draw a sun symbol and light rays. Given the connection between drawings and thinking, one should be able infer design intentions from a drawing and ultimately use such inferences to program a computer to understand our drawings. This dissertation reports findings from empirical studies on drawings and explores the possibility of using the computer to automatically infer designer's concerns from the drawings a designer makes. This dissertation consists of three parts: 1) a literature review of design studies, cognitive studies of drawing and computational sketch systems, and a set of pilot projects; 2) empirical studies of diagramming design intentions and a design drawing experiment; and 3) the implementation of a prototype system called Right-Tool-Right-Time. The main goal is to find out what is in design drawings that a computer program should be able to recognize and support. Experiments were conducted to study the relation between drawing conventions and the design tasks with which they are associated. It was found from the experiments that designers use certain symbols and configurations when thinking about certain design concerns. When thinking about allocating objects or spaces with a required dimensions, designers wrote down numbers beside the drawing to reason xviii about size and to calculate dimensions. When thinking about visual analysis, designers drew sight lines from a view point on a floor plan. Based on the recognition that it is possible to associate symbols and spatial arrangements in a drawing with a designer's intention, or task context, the second goal is to find out whether a computer can be programed to recognize these drawing conventions. Given an inferred intention and context, a program should be able to activate appropriate design tools automatically. For example, concerns about visual analysis can activate a visual simulation program, and number calculations can activate a calculator. The Right- Tool-Right-Time prototype program demonstrates how a freehand sketching system that infers intentions would support the automatic activation of different design tools based on a designers' drawing acts.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 2f17
authors Dokonal, W., Martens, B. and Plösch, R.
year 2002
title New Expectations: City Modeling in the Internet Age
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 97-100
summary The first part of this paper tries to give an overview over the different aspects of city modeling. After a short history on city models the paper starts with a categorization of the different “types” of city models. We try to explain the various aspects involved in the creation of a city model and the problem of maintaining a city model. Then the paper shows the example of two computer models of parts of the same European city which have been created in two different ways. The first version of this computer model tries to use as many automatic or semi automatic procedures as possible to create the model. In the paper examples of these differentprocedures are given - from the automatic creation of the buildings itself, its roofs, and the surrounding terrain to the automatic cleaning of texture photos of the façade. The second version shows a model, which has been done with just a few automatic procedures and a lot of human effort (mainly students). The paper describes the limitation of both techniques and tries to give an outlook towards the combination of these methods. We will also show the importance of internet techniques in the use and presentation of computer city models.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ecaade2008_049
id ecaade2008_049
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2008
title Creating and Using 3D City Models
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 223-230
summary City modelling is a topic which has been on the agenda for a long time. Today crucial questions concerning the creation of a city model are resolved. The vision of the automatic generation of the 3D geometry of a city out of high resolution digital aerial images is a reality now. These new developments decreased the cost for creating and maintaining a 3D city model of a complete city significantly. This paper wants to outline the ‘history’ of 3D city models and show recent developments in this field. An overview about current applications and uses in this field in Austria and the implementation into daily work is shown with examples (Graz and Vienna city models). Additionally the new developments like Street View in Google Earth or Bird’s Eye in Virtual earth are discussed in relation to their 3D ‘relatives’.
keywords 3Dcity Models, GIS, Google Earth, Virtual Earth
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2018_347
id ecaade2018_347
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2018
title Do Training Bikes Dream of Electric Cities ?
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 789-794
summary Virtual reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality is making the headlines in the newspapers and magazines today. But unlike 25 years ago when the first VR rage started with the first Cave Automatic Virtual Environments (CAVE) infrastructures VR is now a technique that is available at very low costs.Especially the recent advances and developments in low cost VR hardware mainly the Head mounted displays (HMD), in particular those that use mobile phones but also the PC based systems like the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive together with recent software developments allow this change. Naturally this is based on the interest of the Gaming Industry and the big players in the smartphone industry. But at the moment there are nearly no tools for architects available within these systems. In our point of view there is the big potential that these technologies can give new opportunities to architects and designers to use VR and AR as part of their design toolbox and not only as a presentation tool. For us this is the most important aspect. In our projects we therefore try to develop a workflow that can be easily used even without programming and scripting skills.
keywords Virtual Reality; Interfaces
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/08/22 13:38

_id sigradi2006_p043d
id sigradi2006_p043d
authors dos Santos Cabral Filho, José and Baltazar do Santos, Ana Paula
year 2006
title Tenda Digital/Digital TENT (Technological Environment for Negotiated Topology) e suas possíveis implicações em contextos sociais [Digital TENT (Technological Environment for Negotiated Topology)]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 346-349
summary This article approaches the social use of digital immersive environments in two different realms. One aiming at the digital training of self-builders involved in participatory design of affordable housing and the other dealing with experimental connection of lowincome communities (favelas) placed at different geographic locations. It first describes the specific digital immersive environment called Digital TENT, developed at IBPA/LAGEAR, which aims to investigate the production of space by means of bodily engagement with images within the perspective of the experience rather than that of the spectacle. Subsequently, it discusses the conceptual basis of the TENT (Technological Environment for Negotiated Topology) as opposed to the CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), This discussion is deepened into a critique of the visual representation of space opposed to the possibility of dynamic creation of environments that only happen in present time with peoples' interaction, Such a critique, associated with two social experiences carried out by IBPA/ LAGEAR, leads to the conclusion that the Digital TENT is effective for both supporting visualization processes and spatial negotiation in participatory design, and also as a place for enhancing the very experience.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 0127
authors Durand, Yves
year 1983
title Perspective Drawings of Architectural Scenes Calculated by Fortranprograms which Make Use of Hidden Line Algorithms and "Solid Modeling" in APL for the Data Preparation.
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.36-III.69
summary This paper gives an account of works recently undertaken by the Department of Architecture of Mons Polytechnic School (Belgium) about a program of computer-assisted design. That program, written in FORTRAN, has been elaborated with the object of drawing perspective architectural scenes on digital plotters or graphic printers and of eliminating hidden lines from these scenes. Two algorithms, that yield good results for automatic search of observer's position in terms of orientation and for the computation of hidden lines in case of numerous segments and opaque surfaces, are presented. Some graphic examples are provided. An algorithm of previous classifying of segments and opaque surfaces is propounded. The precision of calculations and the magnitude of tolerances for parametric operations of comparison are discussed. The use of APL to introduce, modify or correct data is approached; in this way, a survey of potential application of APL for solid modeling is suggested.
keywords Computer-assisted Design, FORTRAN
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:54

_id 54a6
authors Eastman, C. and Jeng, T.S.
year 1999
title A database supporting evolutionary product model development for design
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 305-323
summary This paper presents the facilities in the EDM-2 product modeling and database language that support model evolution. It reviews the need for model evolution as a system and/or language requirement to support product modeling. Four types of model evolution are considered: (1) translation between distinct models, (2) deriving views from a central model, (3) modification of an existing model, and (4) model evolution based on writable views associated with each application. While the facilities described support all for types of evolution, the last type is emphasized. The language based modeling capabilities described in EDM-2 include: (a) mapping facilities for defining derivations and views within a single model or between different models; (b) procedural language capabilities supporting model addition, deletion and modification; (c) support for object instance migration so as to partition the set of class instances into multiple classes; (d) support for managing practical deletion of portions of a model; (e) explicit specification and automatic management of integrity between a building model and various views. The rationale and language features, and in some cases, the implementation strategy for the features, are presented.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 90a7
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1996
title Managing Integrity in Design Information Flows
source Computer Aided Design (May, 1996). 28:6n, pp. 551-565
summary The purpose of this work is to develop automatic methods of semantic integrity maintenance, in support of concurrent engineering. Semantic integrity relations in any final engineering design are built up incrementally, through the use of different computer applications. Here, the structure of these integrity relations are formalized for representation within a database. When changes to a design have to be made, they can invalidate integrity relations in other parts of the design. Formal methods are defined for identifying what data and integrity relations are invalidated by any change. Methods for making changes that minimize re-design are described and formalized. Opportunities for using semantic integrity to assess progress on a design are reviewed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ecaade2018_344
id ecaade2018_344
authors El-Gewely, Noor, Wong, Christopher, Tayefi, Lili, Markopoulou, Areti, Chronis, Angelos and Dubor, Alexandre
year 2018
title Programming Material Intelligence Using Food Waste Deposition to Trigger Automatic Three-Dimensional Formation Response in Bioplastics
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 271-278
summary Bioplastics are by their very nature parametric materials, programmable through the selection of constituent components and the ratios in which they appear, and as such present significant potential as architectural building materials for reasons beyond sustainability and biodegradability. This paper presents a system through which rigid three-dimensional doubly curved hyperbolic paraboloid shapes are automatically formed from two-dimensional sheet casts by harnessing the inherent flexibility and expressiveness of bioplastics. The system uses a gelatin-based bioplastic supplemented with granular organic matter from food waste in conjunction with a split-frame casting system that enables the self-formation of three-dimensional geometries by directing the force of the bioplastic's uniform contraction as it dries. By adjusting the food waste added to the bioplastic, its properties can be tuned according to formal and performative needs; here, dehydrated granulated orange peel and dehydrated spent espresso-ground coffee are used both to impart their inherent characteristics and also to influence the degree of curvature of the resulting bioplastic surfaces. Multi-material casts incorporating both orange peel bioplastic and coffee grounds bioplastic are shown to exert a greater influence over the degree of curvature than either bioplastic alone, and skeletonized panels are shown to exhibit the same behavior as their solid counterparts. Potential developments of the technology so as to gain greater control of the curvature performance, particularly in the direction of computer-controlled additive manufacturing, are considered, as is the potential of application in architectural scale.
keywords Bioplastics; Composites; Fabrication; Materials
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:24

_id ascaad2016_007
id ascaad2016_007
authors Elsayed, Mohamed; Osama Tolba and Ahmed Elantably
year 2016
title Architectural Space Planning Using Parametric Modeling - Egyptian National Housing Project
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 45-54
summary The Egyptian government resorts to prototype housing for low-income citizens to meet the growing demand of the housing market. The problem with the prototype is that it does not meet specific needs. Consequently, users make modifications to the prototype without professional intervention because of the high cost. This paper discusses an automatic multi-stories space planning tool that helps low-income citizens to modify their prototype housing provided by the government. Social, spatial and functional design aspects were set in the original design prototype by an architect. The proposed tool simulates spaces spatial locations in the original design by simulating the analogy of mechanical springs through an interactive simulation of a parametric model. The authors developed the used algorithm in the generative design tool Grasshopper and the live physics engine Kangaroo, both working within the Rhino 3D environment. The algorithm has two versions, one-floor level version and two floors version targeting the wealthier users. Results indicate that this tool integrates with the exploratory nature of the design process even for non-professional users. The authors designed a tool that will help the users to study the effect of the desired modifications against the originally provided prototype, it also makes it easier for users to express their requirements to a professional designer, conserving time and financial cost.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:13

_id e412
authors Fargas, Josep and Papazian, Pegor
year 1992
title Modeling Regulations and Intentions for Urban Development: The Role of Computer Simulation in the Urban Design Studio
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 201-212
summary In this paper we present a strategy for modeling urban development in order to study the role of urban regulations and policies in the transformation of cities. We also suggest a methodology for using computer models as experimental tools in the urban design studio in order to make explicit the factors involved in shaping cities, and for the automatic visualization of projected development. The structure of the proposed model is based on different modules which represent, on the one hand, the rules regulating the physical growth of a city and, on the other hand, heuristics corresponding to different interests such as Real Estate Developers, City Hall Planners, Advocacy and Community Groups, and so on. Here we present a case study dealing with the Boston Redevelopment Authority zoning code for the Midtown Cultural District of Boston. We introduce a computer program which develops the district, adopting a particular point of view regarding urban regulation. We then generalize the notion of this type of computer modeling and simulation, and draw some conclusions about its possible uses in the teaching and practice of design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id c824
authors Fernández, Eduardo and Pi Gamba, Claudio
year 1999
title PCD. Un Asistente al desarrollo de Cursos a Distancia para Internet (PCD. An Assistant for the Development of Remote Courses for Internet)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 389-392
summary Internet is emerging as a leading technology for communication applications in the area of Educational Technology and Distance Education . A number of tools have been developed to help either the teachers in lecturing tasks, as well as the students in following them. PCD was created to bring together in the same environment the best of the existing products in the market. The present version offers these facilities: course assistant, html editor, a generator of automatic self assessment tasks, and a data base storage of the assessments for a later student control. The need of a friendly and powerful graphics interface was enforced during development, in order to simplify the dialog between the participants of the courses. In this paper these facilities are described, as well as current development areas.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 84f6
authors Ferrari, Carlo and Naticchia, Berardo
year 1989
title Definition of Spatial Elements of the Building System: “Reasoner A” in the Castorp System
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 7.2.1-7.2.10
summary This paper tackles the problem of the functional and morphological definition of elementary spaces (in relation to the overall definition of the building object) through the study and the modelization of the designer's knowledge and of the cognitive processes which use it. An interactive automatic system which solves the problem of the placing of objects within a predefined environment is then described. This is the first element in a more general system which is meant as an intelligent aid to building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 19:01

_id ecaade2018_176
id ecaade2018_176
authors Fisher-Gewirtzman, Dafna and Polak, Nir
year 2018
title Integrating Crowdsourcing & Gamification in an Automatic Architectural Synthesis Process
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 439-444
summary This work covers the methodological approach that is used to gather information from the wisdom of crowd, to be utilized in a machine learning process for the automatic generation of minimal apartment units. The flexibility in the synthesis process enables the generation of apartment units that seem to be random and some are unsuitable for dwelling. Thus, the synthesis process is required to classify units based on their suitability. The classification is deduced from opinions of human participants on previously generated units. As the definition of "suitability" may be subjective, this work offers a crowdsourcing method in order to reach a large number of participants, that as a whole would allow to produce an objective classification. Gaming elements have been adopted to make the crowdsourcing process more intuitive and inviting for external participants.
keywords crowdsourcing and gamification; urban density; optimization; automated architecture synthesis; minimum apartments; visual openness
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id eb8e
authors Fowler, Robert J. and Little, James J.
year 1979
title Automatic Extraction of Irregular Network Digital Terrain Models
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 199- 207 : ill. includes bibliography
summary For representation of terrain, an efficient alternative to dense grids is the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN), which represents a surface as a set of non-overlapping contiguous triangular facets, of irregular size and shape. The source of digital terrain data is increasingly dense raster models produced by automated orthophoto machines or by direct sensors such as synthetic aperture radar. A method is described for automatically extracting a TIN model from dense raster data. An initial approximation is constructed by automatically triangulating a set of feature points derived from the raster model. The method works by local incremental refinement of this model by the addition of new points until a uniform approximation of specified tolerance is obtained. Empirical results show that substantial savings in storage can be obtained
keywords GIS, mapping, computational geometry, data structures, mapping, representation, computer graphics, triangulation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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