Search Results

Hits 61 to 80 of 115

_id acadia10_133
id acadia10_133
authors Kim, Jong Bum, Clayton, Mark J.
year 2010
title Support Form-based Codes with Building Information Modeling – The Parametric Urban Model Case Study
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 133-138
summary This study aims to develop the parametric urban model to support Form-based Codes (FBCs) by using Object-Oriented Parametric Modeling (OOPM) and Building Information Modeling (BIM). FBCs have been used to substitute conventional land-use and zoning regulations in the United States. In many cities, FBCs were implemented successfully, but excessive design constraints, difficult code making process, and missing density of FBCs are criticized. As a response to the increasing needs of parametric modeling approaches in the urban design domain, we applied BIM and OOPM techniques in two case studies. We conclude that BIM and OOPM have a great potential to support planning and design processes, and that the parametric urban model allows FBCs to be more flexible, interpretable, and interoperable.
keywords Form-based Codes, Building Information Modeling, Object-Oriented Parametric Modeling
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email jongbum.kim.coa@gmail.com
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id caadria2013_208
id caadria2013_208
authors Kim, Jong Bum; Mark J. Clayton and Wei Yan
year 2013
title Parameterize Urban Design Codes with BIM and Object-Oriented Programming
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 33-42
summary There has been a significant need for the new urban design apparatus that carries out performance analyses of the urban models, since the code reform movements focused on the sustainable urban developments. This research explores the use of parametric Building Information Modeling to enable stakeholders to intuitively understand the implications and consequences of urban design codes. We investigate whether key regulations can be captured as algorithms and ontologies in parametric BIM and Object-Oriented Programming. Then we present our prototype of parametric urban models in a BIM platform that explains (1) the extent which urban design code information can be parameterized in BIM and (2) the methods how parametric models can hold code information. The results show that our prototype enables real-time manipulations of code requirements and interactive visualization of code allowances.  
wos WOS:000351496100004
keywords Parametric modelling, BIM, Object-oriented programming, Urban design codes 
series CAADRIA
email jongbum.kim.coa@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 6df0
authors Komatsu, Kiichiro and Watanabe, Shun
year 1998
title Spatial Database for Model Analysis Methods
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 203-212
summary In the field of architectural and urban planning and design, computer education needs to move beyond basic computer literacy and have more emphasis placed on special subjects related to planning and design. How to manage spatial data is becoming an essential issue for research and education in planning and design especially in the analysis and evaluation phases. This paper discusses the importance of spatial data in planning education and shows how a common spatial database for model analysis methods was constructed at the University of Tsukuba. The database consists of many geographical and statistical data files classified under the standard region mesh codes and covers the whole country from global areas to local areas. Web-based instructions about how to use the database have also been prepared which enable students to study practical spatial analysis by themselves.
keywords Education, Database, GIS, Spatial Analysis
series CAADRIA
email komak@wright.sk.tsukuba.ac.jp, shun@sk.tsukuba.ac.jp
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:35

_id a28d
authors Koutamanis, A., Van Leusen, M. and Mitossi, V.
year 2001
title Route analysis in complex buildings
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 711-724
summary Analysis of pedestrian circulation in buildings is usually performed in the early stages of the design process or later on with respect to a specific design problem such as fire safety. In both cases, the analysis relates more to wayfinding, i.e. search for a route on the basis of fundamental normative criteria. Wayfinding analysis in existing buildings is useful for the comparison between “rational” behaviour and actual usage but this comparison does little to explicate the observed structure of pedestrian circulation. In contrast to wayfinding, route analysis deals with the registration and assessment of actual patterns of pedestrian circulation in existing buildings. These patterns are represented topologically and geometrically. The geometric representation makes use of norms underlying building codes in order to reach an appropriate level of abstraction. Route representations are implemented on top of a building representation of relevant spatial and building elements. The building representation serves both as input and output for the route analysis. Input and output are largely automated, including production of the geometric route locally (i.e. within each space) and measurement of route distance and complexity. Use data are collected in an alphanumeric database and linked dynamically to the geometric and topological representation. Route analysis supports and refines other forms of post-occupancy evaluation by adding important dynamic aspects to activity allocation and compartmentalization.
keywords Pedestrian Circulation, Analysis, Representation, Interaction
series CAAD Futures
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade2012_153
id ecaade2012_153
authors Kunze, Antje ; Dyllong, Julia ; Halatsch, Jan ; Waddell, Paul ; Schmitt, Gerhard
year 2012
title Parametric building typologies for San Francisco Bay Area: A conceptual framework for the implementation of design code building typologies towards a parametric procedural city model
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 187-193
summary This research paper concentrates on a conceptual framework for the creation of high-level procedural city models. A workflow is presented, which enables users to create city models in an intuitive way by using design-code-driven building typologies. This drastically advances traditional procedural city modelling where usually low-level implementations of city model components take place. New planning methods and instruments have to be developed for the growing demand of the rapid environmental, social and economic changes in cities and agglomerations. The presented method allows for quick visualization and iteration by using urban planning typologies.
wos WOS:000330322400018
keywords Procedural Modeling; Design Codes; Urban Planning; City Modeling; Decision-making process
series eCAADe
email kunze@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id sigradi2005_591
id sigradi2005_591
authors Labarca, Claudio M.; Rodrigo Culagovski R.
year 2005
title Parametric urban simulation: digital modeling system for building codes
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 591-596
summary Urban building codes include a series of abstract geometric and mathematical prescriptions whose final built result is not easily visualized by non-technical users. This makes an informed public debate about the proposed regulations difficult and leaves the final definition of the exact ratios and formulas in the hands of local governments’ technical consultants. Even these experts usually have only gross numerical approximations, photomontages and other non-rigorous representations of the final built environment on which to base their decisions. We propose a system which, taking as its inputs the roads and lots of the area under consideration, as well as the proposed building codes, generates a detailed three dimensional model that gives neighbors, users and authorities’ access to a common, objective preview of the foreseeable result of the codes under consideration. We believe this will lead to a greater transparency and participation in building code definition and approval processes. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email clabarca@puc.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id caadria2016_363
id caadria2016_363
authors Lee, Alexander; Suleiman Alhadidi and M. Hank Haeusler
year 2016
title Developing a Workflow for Daylight Simulation
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 363-372
summary Daylight simulations are occasionally used as active tools in regards to local governing regulations, which are necessary for providing documentation. Simulation tools have been avoided in the past due to their barriers. Daylight simulation tools are used within documentation design stages as ‘passive tools’, however they do not have a direct impact on the architecture design decisions, as passive tools are used by engineers usually to derive material and glass speci- fications. Recent developments within an online community have pro- vided designers with access to daylight simulation tools within a de- sign platform accessible data can be modified and represented with local governing codes to provide designers with relevant information. The paper aimed to develop an active daylight simulation tool within a design platform. Data is filtered with the Green Star benchmarks to export visual information as well as a voxel matrix instead of 2D lu- minance maps. This paper outlines a workflow of the simulation tool used to evaluate daylight performance of a selected building as a case study in real time. The paper also details potential problems and justi- fied suggestions derived from the analysis for the building to reach the requirements within the Green Star Multi Unit Residential.
keywords Data-driven design; computation environmental design; daylight simulation; Green Star
series CAADRIA
email alexandertuksunlee@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id 998d
authors Lee, Alpha Wai Keung
year 2002
title Design Computing Education Software Development Integration of Scaffolding Strategies and Multiple Representations
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 140-143
summary Design Computing is an interdisciplinary field that centres on the intersection of design, computer science and linguistics. This multidimensional face of the new paradigm of design computing necessitates a mutual understanding of computing and designs as a whole, which are usually, conceived as separated stages of computed-mediated design. Based on cognitive and computational approach, with the integration of scaffolding strategies and multiple representations, an interactive and real-time design computing learning system is constructed. By interactively manipulating the various attributes, codes, parameters and digital media contents in a distributed system, learners are gradually exposed to the mutual relationship of representational digital multimedia and the underlining programming syntax in a collaborative environment. The author attempted the use of game programming technology in the development of the above system to support design learning and research in understanding design activities. The aim is to identify the design process that if taught well would address the core goals of design education.
series eCAADe
email alpha@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id caadria2011_028
id caadria2011_028
authors Lesage, Annemarie and Tomás Dorta
year 2011
title Two conceptual design tools and an immersive experience: Beyond the pragmatic-pleasurable split in UX
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 291-300
summary In a recent study, we compared two conceptual design tools supporting collaboration, a whiteboard software accessed through Internet, and a hybrid immersive system, the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS). The result of the study appeared to favour the HIS because of its immersive qualities. In this paper, we seek possible explanations as to why immersion delivered a better experience, by looking at the mental workload in relationship to the experience. For the workload we rely on Wickens’ four-dimensional multiple resource model, specifically processing codes (verbal/spatial) and visual channels; and for the experience, Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of flow and our own concept of Design Flow. The designers seemed to be responding to different styles of information processing required of them by each tool, one being more experiential and the other requiring a heavier mental workload. Insight in the cognitive underpinning of a strictly pragmatic immersive experience suggests that UX has also to do with how the information is received and processed by users, without isolating the functional from the rest of the experience.
keywords User experience; immersion; flow; mental workload; Hybrid Ideation Space
series CAADRIA
email annemarie.lesage@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2009_092
id caadria2009_092
authors Liu, Chun-Hung; Chang-Franw Lee
year 2009
title The Design of a Mobile Navigation System Based on QR Codes for Historic Buildings
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 103-112
summary Due to the rapid development of mobile and compact electronic devices such as PDAs and smart phones, designers and developers now have to consider user mobility and the dynamic context of use in the design of interactive systems. In this study, literatures associated with mobile navigation systems in museums and historic buildings are first reviewed in order to understand the features, advantages, and drawbacks of current mobile navigation technology. The feasibility of applying QR codes in the navigation of historic buildings is then discussed, and the mobile navigation principles mentioned in previous literatures are applied in our proposed system. A number of common problems are encountered in the navigation of local historic buildings or museums. Visitors (1) cannot understand what makes an exhibited item a work of art; (2) do not know where to start or how to get started; (3) feel rushed by guides during the guided tour; and (4) find that the audio guide is not clear enough. Managers of historic buildings or museums are generally concerned about (1) the high cost of constructing a mobile navigation environment; (2) possible damage to devices; and (3) the cost of device maintenance. This study attempts to solve the above issues by constructing an affordable digital navigation environment that enables users to clearly understand each exhibited item and its location.
keywords Mobile navigation; QR code; historic buildings
series CAADRIA
email chliu@kfut.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id sigradi2004_336
id sigradi2004_336
authors Luisa Paraguai Donati; Gilbertto Prado
year 2004
title Computador vestível: Mediando o corpo, reconfigurando a percepção do espaço [Wearable Computer: Mediating the Body, Reconfiguring the Perception of Space]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This paper is concerned with the comprehension of a specific interface: wearable computer, and its potential in reconfiguring the space and body wearer.s perception and experience. Such device is always on, always accessible and it performs its functions to aid and enhance users. experience. By wearing it, another sense of being has been proposed, when it is possible to act simultaneously in physical and digital spaces. The access to other perceptive dimensions as simultaneous operations in different codes, dimensions, spaces, worlds, can project the bodily experience, extend the limits of the space, change the conditions of behaviours, and the measure of things. After a brief explanation about wearable computer, some projects will be presented, emphasizing the device as a mediator of personal experiences and poetic procedures.
series SIGRADI
email luisaparaguai@terra.com.br, gttoprado@ajato.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id acadia18_46
id acadia18_46
authors Marcus, Adam; Kudless, Andrew
year 2018
title Drawing Codes. Experimental protocols of architectural representation
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 46-55
summary Emerging technologies of design and production have largely changed the role of drawings within the contemporary design process from that of design generators to design products. As architectural design has shifted from an analog drawing-based paradigm to that of a computational model-based paradigm, the agency of the drawing as a critical and important form of design representation has greatly diminished. As our design tools have increasingly become computational and the production of our drawings have become predominantly automated, this paper examines the effects on the architectural discipline and attempts to catalog examples of how artists, designers, architects, and programmers have used rule-based techniques in the process of drawing as a critical act in their process. Furthermore, the paper presents the Drawing Codes project, an ongoing research and exhibition platform that critically investigates the intersection of code and drawing: how rules and constraints inform the ways architects document, analyze, represent, and design the built environment. The project features commissioned drawings by a range of contemporary architects and designers as a means of gathering a diverse set of perspectives on how computational techniques, but more importantly, computational thinking, can reexamine the role of architectural drawing as a creative and critical act.
keywords full paper, design theory & history, representation + perception, procedural design, art and technology
series ACADIA
type paper
email amarcus2@cca.edu
last changed 2019/01/07 11:21

_id sigradi2005_304
id sigradi2005_304
authors Marques, Sandra; Jean-Pierre Goulette
year 2005
title Architectural visions and mediations of cyberspace
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 304-309
summary The use and evolution of Information and Communication Technologies is widening not only the process of communicating architecture but also it is challenging what we design and also how we design. These technologies became infrastructures in a world that has acquired a digital or virtual layer that are affecting not only the professional practices of designers, but also, and more generally, our collective vision of spatiality and the way we communicate it. In order to adjust itself to this increasingly volatile world, architecture is recasting its boundaries, its essential codes and tools. This paper focuses on the application of these ideas into the theoretical and methodological structure of an undergraduate course held in the context of an international Virtual Design Studio between a French and a Canada school of architecture which general objective is to explore the associations between Forme, Information, Novation and Conception by designing Virtual Architectures (FINC-AV).
series SIGRADI
email sandra.marques@toulouse.archi.fr
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id sigradi2005_075
id sigradi2005_075
authors Müller, Milagros
year 2005
title Perception of representation space for present forms of art
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 75-79
summary Contemporaneus art constructs its own space: interactive, multiple, eidetic, heterogenous, discontinuous and subjective: essence, forms and idea of a heterotopic at the same time atopic space, that arises at the moment of the intelligible apprehension of the work. This work sets out to study the construction codes of that space from the spectator point of view, for whom the history is the sum of histories narrated by the space, the scenery, stage scene, choreography, dances, hairdos, accessories, make-up, clothes, illumination, music, sounds, songs, word, performance, gestures etc., for which sets out the analysis from the perceived, analyzed and interpreted images by the spectator. It will be exemplified from the Dogville film, of Lars Von Traer (2004), using the qualitative research method, where the speaker meaning is introduced: the creator intentionality of those spaces, but is inescapable who arises the “interpretation” from the observer. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email mmuller@cantv.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaade2014_018
id ecaade2014_018
authors Nils Seifert, Michael Mühlhaus, Gerhard Schubert, Dietrich Fink and Frank Petzold
year 2014
title Decision support for inner-city development - An interactive customizable environment for decision-making processes in urban planning.
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 43-52
summary Re-densification of inner-city areas is a highly topical socio-political issue. In order to meet the increasing demand for centrally located living space, the cities have to amend building laws. At present, there are no analytical means of directly comparing and assessing different strategies and measures aimed at identifying the potential for internal development in specific urban quarters and learning about the consequences for the citizens. In this publication, we describe an interactive digital tool that monitors the key building codes and visualizes their effects on the urban structure in real-time, so that this can serve as an informed basis for debate and argumentation in the political decision-making and planning process, consequently supporting the development of re-densification strategies that are well-suited to their urban context.
wos WOS:000361384700003
keywords Urban planning; redensification; decision support; visual programming; versioning
series eCAADe
email nils.seifert@tum.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 427b
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1993
title A Computerized Fire Safety Evaluation System for Business Occupancies
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 241-251
summary The development of computer-based code compliance checking programs has been the focus of many studies. While some of these investigated the procedural aspects of building codes, others focused more on their rule base. On the other hand, due to the complexity of the codes, the process of identifying which sections apply to a given problem, and in which order to access them requires a meta-knowledge structuring system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101M, Alternative Approaches to Life Safety (1992) provides a framework through which code sections can be systematically accessed by means of a set of checklists. The study presented here primarily focuses on the development of a computer based fire safety code checking system called ARCHCode/Business for business occupancies following the guidelines and the methodology described in Chapter 7 of NFPA 101M.
keywords Fire Safety Expert System, Business Occupancies, CAD Interface
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id ecaade2017_090
id ecaade2017_090
authors Patlakas, Panagiotis, Livingstone, Andrew and Hairstans, Robert
year 2017
title An Automated Code Compliance system within a BIM environment
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 153-160
summary The present paper presents a framework for an Automated Code Compliance (ACC) system within a BIM environment. We begin by introducing the concept of ACC and its applicability in contemporary practice in general and BIM in particular. We proceed by introducing the mathematical method of Multi-Dimensional Data Fitting (MDDF) to develop singular structural design equations from multi-dimensional datasets of structural design equations employed in international design codes. We follow this by demonstrating how the MDDF output has been implemented in BIM-based software, to achieve code compliance. Finally, we demonstrate the overarching framework and how this can be implemented on a wide scale to achieve full ACC.
keywords Automatic Code Compliance; BIM; Timber
series eCAADe
email panagiotis.patlakas@bcu.ac.uk
last changed 2017/09/13 13:27

_id acadia11_122
id acadia11_122
authors Pigram, David; McGee, Wes
year 2011
title Formation Embedded Design: A methodology for the integration of fabrication constraints into architectural design
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 122-131
summary This paper presents a methodology for the integration of fabrication constraints within the architectural design process through custom written algorithms for fabrication. The method enables the translation from three-dimensional geometry, or algorithmically produced data, into appropriately formatted machine codes for direct CNC fabrication within a single CAD modeling environment. This process is traditionally one-way with part files translated via dedicated machine programming software (CAM). By integrating the toolpath creation into the design package, with an open framework, the translation from part to machine code can be automated, parametrically driven by the generative algorithms or explicitly modeled by the user. This integrated approach opens the possibility for direct and instantaneous feedback between fabrication constraints and design intent. The potentials of the method are shown by discussing the computational workflow and process integration of a diverse set of fabrication techniques in conjunction with a KUKA 7-Axis Industrial Robot. Two-dimensional knife-cutting, large-scale additive fabrication (foam deposition), robot-mounted hot-wire cutting, and robot-assisted rod-bending are each briefly described. The productive value of this research is that it opens the possibility of a much stronger network of feedback relations between formational design processes and material and fabrication concerns.
keywords robotic fabrication; multi-axis; file-to-factory, open-source fabrication, parametric modeling, computational design
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email david.pigram@uts.edu.au
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2008_045
id ecaade2008_045
authors Pinochet, Diego; Labarca, Claudio; Burdiles, Macarena
year 2008
title Dichotomy between Digital Project and Real Project Execution
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 587-592
summary This paper relates the experience of the author in finding digital tools to generate diversity of results in the design process of one project, aiming to generate base tools developed in the form of script codes, that may operate in diverse fields of action reacting to the diverse variables characteristics of each place, The development of the script is what allows this to happen.
keywords Digital Design: Manufacturing, Scripting, Programming, CAD + CAM
series eCAADe
email dipinoch@uc.cl, clabarca@uc.cl, imburdil@uc.cl
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2012_235
id sigradi2012_235
authors Polo, Pablo Herrera
year 2012
title Reutilizando códigos como mecanismo de información y conocimiento: Programación en arquitectura [Reusing codes as a mechanism of information and cognition: Scripting in architecture]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 74-78
summary Differently from other regions in the Planet, since 2010, in Latin America textual programming language (Rhinoscripting) is being replaced by its visual equivalent (Grasshopper). This is a consequence of our preference for an interactive platform, and because our design problems are not as complex, so we aim to control geometrical problems or aspects belonging to an product scale instead of an architectural one. Problems emerging when creating code could be improved by modifying and reusing existing solutions as a starting point, since learning would not be centered in the object but in the process of creating it, using a suitable instrument.
keywords Visual Programming Language; Textual Programming Language; Scripting; Grasshopper; Rhinoscripting
series SIGRADI
email pablo@espaciosdigitales.org
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

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