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_id 10a8
authors McCall, Raymond Joseph
year 1978
title On the structure and use of issue systems in design
source University of California, Berkeley
summary The purpose of this dissertation is to explain and justify the concept of issue serving-systems as a new paradigm for descriptive and normative models of design processes. This paradigm is based in general on Horst Rittel's "Argumentative Planning Paradigm" and in particular on Rittel's "Issue-Based Information System" --IBIS-- method. Like IBIS, the issue serving-system concept views design as consisting of the raising and answering of various questions, called issues. The addition of the issue serving-system concept to IBIS is the claim that the serving relationship is the main means for structuring issues into a system for design. That relationship is the one in which an issue A serves an issue B, by which it is meant that the answering of A is useful in deriving the answer to B. Collections of issues structured by this relationship are labelled "issue serving-systems." In the dissertation it is explained that an issue servingsystem has a quasi-hierarchical structure and has as its function the answering of a P!L issue, i.e., an issue of the form, "What should this plan be." Two projects are undertaken in order to demonstrate the normative significance of the issue serving-system concept. The first is to show that the concept forms the basis of a variety of techniques for mechanical (algorithmic) generation of issues and answers. The second is to show how the concept provides criteria for determining which issues should be dealt with and in what order. In particular, it is argued that a topdown breadth-first order of raising issues is best. These conclusions are incorporated into procedures for design, and two applications of these procedures are described. One application involves use of an interactive computer program written by the author. The other involves a non-computerized version of the method.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 8fb2
id 8fb2
authors McCall, Raymond, Bennett, Patrick and Johnson, Erik
year 1994
title An Overview of the PHIDIAS II HyperCAD System
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 63-74
summary The PHIDIAS II HyperCAD system combines the functionality of CAD graphics, hypermedia, database management and knowledge-based computation in a single, highly integrated design environment. The CAD functionality includes both 3-D and 2-D vector graphics. The hypermedia includes support for text, raster images, video and sound. The database management enables persistent storage and interlinking of large collections of text, images, video, sound and vector graphics, i.e., thousands of vector graphic objects and drawings in a single database. Retrieval is provided both through use of "associative indexing" based on hyperlinks and through use of an advanced query language. The knowledge- based computation includes both inference and knowledgebased critiquing.

A highly unusual feature of PHIDIAS II is that it implements all of its functions using only hypermedia mechanisms. Complex vector graphic drawings and objects are represented as composite hypermedia nodes. Inference and critiquing are implemented through use of what are known as virtual structures [Halasz 1988], including virtual links and virtual nodes. These nodes and links are dynamic (computed) rather than static (constant). They are defined as expressions in the same language used for queries and are computed at display time. The implementation of different kinds of functions using a common set of mechanisms makes it easy to use them in combination, thus further augmenting the system's functionality.

PHIDIAS supports design by informing architects as they develop a solution's form. The idea is thus not to make the design process faster or cheaper but rather to improve the quality of the things designed. We believe that architects can create better buildings for their users if they have better information. This includes information about buildings of given types, user populations, historical and modern precedents, local site and climate conditions, the urban and natural context and its historical development, as well as local, state and federal regulations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:34

_id 8767
authors Melo Pardo, Fernando Antonio
year 2001
title COMPENDIO Y DOCUMENTACIÓN EN TORNO A LO OTRO. (Compendium and Documentation Around the Other)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 251-253
summary This visual proposal based on traditional disciplines of Arts such as drawing, ceramics, photography digitally treated and transformed with expressive intentions approximated to the philosophic literary concept of ¨ La Otredad ¨, know as a manifestation which some authors describe as ¨ the presence of an absence or called the Great Other...., this which says death ¨ plans an approximation to the emotion activated by the perception in front to images, forms and textures in environs full of humidity temporally and some times paradoxically altered interiors by the non clear activity of human beings and collections that are ¨recorded as Compendiums or Documentation by an unknown photographer of a parallel and apocriphal reality made real by the digital possibilities¨.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 2004_210
id 2004_210
authors More, Gregory, Yuille, Jeremy and Burry, Mark
year 2004
title Designing Spatial Sounds for Spatial Information Environments
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 210-217
summary This paper reports on the design of spatial sounds for information environments. This research primarily relates to developing the sound component for a software prototype of a presentation environment that integrates realtime three-dimensional graphics with user interaction. For this project sound designers were engaged to examine the design of spatial sounds to examine the issues of dimensionality within presentation environments. The sound design work utilised a range of sound techniques: real world recording and modulation, static sound collections and DSP (Digital Signal Processing). The two main themes for the research were exploring sound as both thematic and navigational tools, utilising concepts that address the issues of multi-dimensionality within a time based presentation environment.
keywords Spatial Visualisation, Spatial Sound, Information Architecture, Sonification
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id ecaade2009_143
id ecaade2009_143
authors Mueller, Volker
year 2009
title Ontology for Computational Design: Computational Methods versus Cultural Processes
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 441-448
summary In the ongoing taxonomy and ontology work in and about the computational design domain varying progress has been made. While in the ontology work oriented towards computational use within the domain a human-based approach appears favored, in the ontology work focused on the research domain the focus seems to be on computational approaches. This paper proposes to extend the human-based approach to the construction of an online research domain ontology in order to utilize inter-human collaboration to capture the fundamentally cultural phenomenon of language or vocabulary and its agreed upon meaning. Online availability would allow referencing for tagging of contents, for example for use in keyword lists, or for computational categorization of collections. Such an effort would add a research community forum for continued discourse about the research domain.
wos WOS:000334282200053
keywords Ontology, research domain, semantic web
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id e8fe
authors Nagakura, Takehiko
year 1990
title Shape Recognition and Transformation: A Script-Based Approach
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 149-170
summary Design evolves. Architects deploy considerable knowledge to develop their designs from one stage to the next. Drawings play a major role in describing the 11 state" of design at each stage; however, they do not explicitly reveal the knowledge used to achieve the design, for the knowledge is concealed in the "process" between these stages rather than in the drawings themselves. This process involves parametric and schematic transformations as well as perception of unanticipated possibilities emerging from the drawings in progress. To make an impact on design, CAD must address these issues of design knowledge, but so far its focus has been instead on drawings as relatively static collections of graphic primitives. This paper introduces the concepts of shapes and shape transformation as fundamental aspects of design knowledge. It is implemented on a computer program in the form of a prototype shape-scripting language. In summary, this language works as a shell to encode a set of shape categories and their transformations, and it enables progressive shape recognition and shape transformation in line drawings. An appropriate set of these encoded transformations may represent a body of syntactic knowledge about an architectural style. This opens up the exciting possibility of a computational implementation of a shape grammar.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2a8b
authors Purcell, Patrick and Applebaum Dan
year 1990
title Light Table: An Interface To Visual Information Systems
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 229-238
summary A primary aim of the Light Table project was to see if a combination of the optical laser disc, local area networks, and interactive videographic workstation technology could bring a major visual collection, (such as the Rotch Visual Collections of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), to a campuswide population of undergraduate users. VIS (Visual Information System) is the name being given to the new genre of information technology. Much research and development effort is currently being applied to areas where the image has a special significance, for example in architecture and planning, in graphic and fine arts, in biology, in medicine, and in photography. One particular advance in the technology of VIS has been the facility to access visual information across a distributed computer system via LAN (Local Area Networks) and video delivery systems, (such as campus TV cable). This advance allows users to retrieve images from both local and remote sources, dispatching the image search through the LAN, and receiving the images back at their workstation via dedicated channels on the campus TV cable. Light Table is the title of a system that acts as a computer-based interactive videographic interface to a variety of visual information systems described in the body of this paper. It takes its name from the traditional, back- lit, translucent light table that lecturers use to assemble and view collections of slides for talks and seminars. The component of Light Table which is being reported in greatest detail here, a software outcome called Galatea, is a versatile and robust system capable of controlling video devices in a networked environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id acadia16_62
id acadia16_62
authors Rusenova, Gergana; Dierichs, Karola; Baharlou, Ehsan; Menges, Achim
year 2016
title Feedback- and Data-driven Design for Aggregate Architectures: Analyses of Data Collections for Physical and Numerical Prototypes of Designed Granular Materials
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp.62-72
summary This project contributes to the investigations in the field of aggregate architectures by linking two research areas: the numerical simulation of aggregate formations, and a concept for an online-controlled pneumatic formwork system. This paper introduces a novel approach for constructing with designed particles based on a feedback process. The overall aim was to investigate the capacity of aggregates as an architectural material system, which create emergent spatial formations. Initially the particles´ micro-mechanical behavior and the fragile stability of the formations were analyzed using numerical simulations. Based on this, an online-controlled inflatable formwork system was developed. The formwork was designed to react to the actual stability state of an aggregate formation; for this, a statistical set of simulation data was gathered, which directly informed the physical system. This overall concept was proven and verified in a one-to-one scaled physical model. The methods developed within this research provide a first set of baselines for comparison between the behavior of simulated and physical designed granular materials.
keywords simulations, designed particles, feedback-driven design, embedded responsiveness
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id a18b
authors Samet, Hanan and Webber, Robert E.
year 1985
title Storing a Collection of Polygons Using Quadtrees
source ACM Transactions on Graphics July, 1985. vol. 4: pp. 182-222 : some ill. includes bibliography.
summary An adaptation of the quadtree data structure that represents polygonal maps (i.e., collections of polygons, possibly containing holes) is described in a manner that is also useful for the manipulation of arbitrary collections of straight line segments. The goal is to store these maps without the loss of information that results from digitization, and to obtain a worst-case execution time that is not overly sensitive to the positioning of the map. Regular decomposition variant of the region quadtree is usedÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ to organize the vertices and edges of the maps. A number of related data organizations are proposed in an iterative manner until a method is obtained that meets the stated goals. The result is termed a PM (Polygonal Map) quadtree and is based on a regular decomposition Point Space quadtree (PS quadtree) that stores additional information about the edges at its terminal nodes. Algorithms are given for inserting and deleting line segments from a PM quadtree. Use of the PM quadtree to perform point location, dynamic line insertion, and map overlay is discussed. An empirical comparison of the PM quadtree with other quadtree-based representations for polygonal maps is also provided
keywords data structures, quadtree, polygons, representation, point inclusion, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id caadria2007_503
id caadria2007_503
authors Sat, Reika; Bin Lu, Mayumi, Oyama-Higa. Tsuneo Jozen and Katsuya Nagae
year 2007
title Impact of Design Tools with Game-Like Function on Designer
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Various visualization design tools such as CG and VR have been widely used in the process of architectural design and urban planning. The applications of these tools not only assist the designers but also make it possible to involve other relevant professionals and ordinary residents. In order to enable more convenient applications of the tools in the design process and instigate the interests of additional parties of relevance, we add entertainment function to the design tools. In order to test the results of such design tools resembling computer games, we examined the status of users during the design process when these tools being employed. Comparison of the results of questionnaire and collections of physiological data indicated the unique effectiveness of game-like design tools. Pulse detection at ear was used to check the changes of blood supply for left and right hemispheres. The data collected were then visualized by complex Chaos analysis. Comparison of the processed data indicated the different brain status when a user applies these tools in the design and showed the effectiveness of the tools and their impact on the designer. Our results support the usefulness of game-like design tools and may lead to further developments of contents and methods to advance such tools.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id caadria2013_151
id caadria2013_151
authors Simeone, Davide; Yehuda E. Kalay and Davide Schaumann
year 2013
title Using Game-Like Narrative to Simulate Human Behaviour in Built Environments
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 199-208
summary Predicting future users’ behaviour and their activities in a building is a highly complex task that designers have to face during the design process. Despite its importance, few methods exist that can predict and help evaluate this type of building performance during the design process itself. Simulative approaches are gradually overcoming this shortcoming, but at present their application is limited to the representation of specific occurrences and behavioural performance aspects, such as emergency egress. Based on current developments in the video game industry, our research aims to establish a new approach to human behaviour simulation in built environments, based on a clear and reliable representation of the use processes occurring in a building. At its core is simulation based on the notion of events, defined as active entities on their own, comprised of space, people, and activities. These events entities are structured into collections called narratives, which represent and allow the simulation of the step-by-step performing of activities by users in a built environment.  
wos WOS:000351496100020
keywords Human behaviour simulation, Building-user interaction, Prediction and evaluation, Event model, Game narrative  
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ddss9484
id ddss9484
authors Sklar, Hinda
year 1994
title Opening Doors at Harvard's Graduate School of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Design communication has many forms and employs a wide array of references. Design pedagogy uses a rich body of sources and is informed by deep communication between faculty and student. Advancing technology for distribution and manipulation of digital design media and a pervasive computer network at the Harvard Graduate School of Design provide an ideal environment for investigating new methods of access to design resources. A research initiative called the DOORS project (Design-Oriented On-line Resource System) will make a variety of design reference materials available over the GSD's computer network Potentially, DOORS will provide access to: - the Frances Loeb Library's visual and special collections; - slides, drawings, photographs, videos; - private faculty slide collections; - maps and geographic information systems of text, numeric and other visual databases of three- dimensional computer models; - computer-generated animations and digital video segments with sound of multimedia projects. As early pilot versions of DOORS are released, faculty and students will gather visual information for study and modification, analyze images and models, compare and link design documentation in different formats, develop lectures and make presentations from computers in offices, classrooms, and studio work areas. Emphasis will be placed on flexibility, as this particular tool's success will hinge on its ability to respond to different approaches to design and instruction. DOORS proposes to offer three modalities, browsing, composition and presentation, to enable searching, organizati-on, and display. Using established library standards for record format, subject access and keyword indexing, browsing will offer flexible and diverse search criteria. Composition will provide tools for linking, annotation and manipulation of assembled materials. Individual presentations will be viewed in classrooms, studios or offices. A pilot project to assemble some of the basic technology and expertise required is currently under way. The objective of the pilot is to deliver a slice of material over the GSD's local area network in order to raise awareness of the tool's potential among faculty and students, to evaluate its effectiveness, and to formulate technical specifications for later project phases.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8a0c
authors Tan, Milton
year 1990
title Saying What It Is by What It Is Like - Describing Shapes Using Line Relationships
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 201-213
summary Shapes - taken as well-defined collections of lines - are fundamental building blocks in architectural drawings. From doodles to shop drawings, shapes are used to denote ideas and represent elements of design, many of which ultimately translate into actual objects. But because designs evolve, the shapes representing a design are seldom static - instead, they are perpetually open to transformations. And since transformations involve relationships, conventional methods of describing shapes as sets of discrete endpoints may not provide an appropriate foundation for schematic design. This paper begins with a review of the perception of shapes and its significance in design. In particular, it argues that juxtapositions and inter-relationships of shapes are important seedbeds for creative development of designs. It is clear that conventional representation of shapes as sets of discrete lines does not cope with these -emergent" subshapes; the most basic of which arise out of intersecting and colinear lines. Attempts to redress this by using ‘reduction rules’ based on traditional point-and-line data structures are encumbered by computational problems of precision and shape specification. Basically, this means that some ‘close’ cases of sub-shapes may escape detection and their specifications are difficult to use in substitution operations. The paper presents the findings of a computer project - Emergence II - which explored a 'relational' description of shapes based on the concept of construction lines. It builds on the notion that architectural shapes are constructed in a graphic context and that, at a basic compositional level, the context can be set by construction lines. Accordingly, the interface enables the delineation of line segments with reference to pre-established construction lines. This results in a simple data structure where the knowledge of shapes is centralized in a lookup table of all its construction lines rather than dispersed in the specifications of line segments. Taking this approach, the prototype software shows the ease and efficiency of applying ‘reduction rules’ for intersection and colinear conditions, and for finding emergent sub-shapes by simply tracking the construction lines delimiting the ends of line segments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ddssar0228
id ddssar0228
authors Tunçer, B. and Stouffs, R.
year 2002
title Modeling Cooperative Design Analyses
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The study of precedents plays an important role in design and design education. Architecture students prepare analyses of prominent precedents with respect to various criteria. Such design analyses arerepresented and communicated through abstractions. Collections of these abstractions are stored, related, managed, and presented in digital environments. Such web-based environments can serve as anextensible library of design precedent analyses. The use of an extensive library by a collection of students requires a flexible and extensible information model for relating and integrating the various contributions. We propose a methodology that establishes an information model for digital architectural analysis environments. This model facilitates a rich information structure of abstraction entities and their relationships, both structural and semantic, offering increased value for accessing and browsing this information. Specifically, a rich information structure allows one to access the information from alternative views to those that are expressed by the individual abstractions. In this paper, we start bydiscussing precedent-based learning, and describe the abstraction model currently used for precedent documentation and analysis. We then present our methodology for achieving a rich information structure. We end the paper with a description of an implementation of this methodology as anarchitectural analysis construction and presentation environment for a second year design studio.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2bb6
authors Van Bakergem, Dave
year 1990
title Image Collections in the Design Studio
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 261-271
summary No matter what the medium, architects are constantly using images in all aspects of design thinking. Whether it is the perception of the environment, an image in the mind's eye, an abstract drawing or a photographic record, designers use images to conceive of, and manipulate their design ideas. Managing these image collections occurs at a variety of levels in the creative process and is dependent on the type of image that is called upon for reference. The most basic example would be the image collection residing in the mind's memory which is a result of the designer’s world experiences and the relative impressiveness of each experience. Clearly, personal memory plays a significant role in the use of imagery in design, but it is unreliable and can be abstracted in uncontrollable ways. The sketchbook and later photographic collections of the grand tour were the beginnings of efforts to manage and utilize image collections as an aid to drawing and thinking about design. Now the capacity to use electronic means of creating, altering, storing, and retrieving images will enable designers to effectively use large image collections in ways that have not been possible before. This paper describes current work at the School of Architecture at Washington University in a graduate design studio. The students use a powerful 3D modeling CAD system (HOKDraw) to design and present their studio projects. In addition, we are experimenting with an image storage and retrieval system which is directly linked to the CAD model through a relational database (INGRES). Access to the database and images is instantly available through the command language and graphic display. The CAD model in effect becomes a 3D menu to an extensive image database stored on an optical memory disc recorder. Several collections are available to the studio members: the library's slide collection which relates to the studio project, specific photographs and drawings of the project site, and personal image collections stored by individuals for their own reference. The commonly accessible images are basically background material and images collected by the students to document the site, urban context and building typology. The personal images collections are any images (drawings, photographs, published images, CAD images) created or collected by the students for purposes of informing their design thinking. This work relates to the use of precedents and typology in architecture as a point of departure as well as in development of design ideas.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 291d
id 291d
authors Van Bakergem, Davis W. and Obata, Gen
year 1993
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 471-480
summary This paper describes our current work in the development of an interactive, collaborative design space. It attempts to anticipate a future in which complex design Problems are undertaken by an interdisciplinary, collaborative group of contributors working within an electronic, networked environment. These networked working groups are made possible by the expanded use of high-speed digital networks and are expected to continue to grow within the design profession Using the design of an academic building as a case study, several new tools and techniques were used to develop an information place superimposed over the three-dimensional digital model of the site and proposed building. These tools allow the user to create a collection of data including site documentation and analysis; propose interventions; and access the data through three-dimensional icons in the modeL Several new techniques related to collecting and accessing information within the collaborative space are discussed.
keywords Collaboration, Hypermedia, Information Visualizer, Virtual Workspace, Image Collections
series CAAD Futures
type normal paper
last changed 2004/04/10 04:43

_id 53a4
authors Vélez Jahn, Gonzalo
year 1999
title The MUMOVIAR (Museum for Modeling Virtual Architecture) - A Proposal for a Research Theme (The Mumoviar (For Museum Virtual Modeling Architecture) - to for Proposal to Research Theme)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 379-383
summary One of the most interesting areas in the forefront of non-immersive virtual reality (VRML) applications to architecture is the one that concerns the design, construction and exploration of on-line multi-access worlds using the Internet-WWW. However, and despite the great proliferation of earlier single-access models built on VRML, attempts to collect, classify and provide accesibility that type of models has proved almost nil. On the other side, one of the architectural typologies that promises the greatest transformation potential in the virtual architecture area in cyberspace is the one that concerns virtual museums and galleries. This paper seeks to provide a bridge between the two aforementioned approaches by formulating a conceptual basis for the creation of a virtual, on-line, multi-access museum intended to house collections of VRML building models. Such models, initially shown at a conventional model scale, would be accessed by visitors through an interface intended to transport those visitors into the models’ environments, where changes in scale could provide navigation access to interior and exterior view of the building . Accordingly, the museum would act as a sort of "spaceport” toward different routes of exploration. This modelistic cascading seems to offer interesting possibilities as regards future virtual architecture applications.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id ecaade2010_165
id ecaade2010_165
authors Wassermann, Klaus
year 2010
title SOMcity: Networks, Probability, the City, and its Context
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.197-205
summary Cities have always been locations of densified collections of various kinds of networks. While usually networks are conceived as a kind of immaterial logistic devices, we emphasize another quality of networks, their capabilities for associative learning. We propose autonomous associative networks in their probabilistic flavor, such as so-called Self-Organizing Maps, as abstract candidate structures for simulation experiments and as actualized structures of real cities as well. The properties of Self-Organizing Maps allow to introduce a whole new area of analytical procedures to conceive of the city and its properties. It also makes it possible to operationalize the attractivity of cities or the success of the implementation of urban planning.
wos WOS:000340629400021
keywords Urban theory; Participation; Self-organizing maps (SOM); Associativity; Network-based metric
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 7893
authors Woodbury, R.F., Wyeld, Th.G., Shannon, S.J., Roberts, I.W., Radford, A., Burry, M., Skates, H., Ham, J. and Datta, S.
year 2001
title The Summer Games
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 293-297
summary As part of a nationally funded project, we have developed and used “games” as studentcentred teaching resources to enrich the capacity for design in beginning students in architecture, landscape architecture and urban design. Students are encouraged to learn inter-actively in a milieu characterised by self-directed play in a low-risk computermodelling environment. Recently thirteen upper year design students, six from Adelaide University (Adelaide, South Australia, Australia), five from Deakin University (Geelong, Victoria, Australia), and two from Victoria University, (Wellington, New Zealand) were commissioned over a ten-week period of the 2000-2001 Australian summer to construct a new series of games. This paper discusses the process behind constructing these games. This paper discusses six topical areas: – what is a game; – specific goals of the summer games; – the structure of a game; – the game-making process; – key findings from the production unit; and – future directions.
keywords Reflection-In-Action, Design Making, Game Container, Collections, Meta-Cases, Data Repository
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

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