Search Results

Hits 1 to 20 of 59

_id ecaade2011_017
id ecaade2011_017
authors Achten, Henri; Koszewski, Krzysztof; Martens, Bob
year 2011
title What happened after the “Hype” on Virtual Design Studios?: Some Considerations for a Roundtable Discussion
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.23-32
summary The issue of collaborative design has been elaborated extensively within the framework of previous CAAD–conferences. Today, an appreciation for traditional attitudes and methods can be observed, but interestingly, a mixture of approaches is also noticeable (computational techniques used in low–tech fabrication environments, for example). This allows for a round–table survey of the current state–of–the–art focused on experiences related to distant learning in the architectural curriculum. To make VDS viable, not only are technological solutions necessary, but so are social (among people) and professional (ways of behavior) ones. In this round–table we aim to identify critical factors of success (or failure).
wos WOS:000335665500001
keywords Education; architectural curriculum; blended learning; collaborative design; VDS
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2004_353
id sigradi2004_353
authors Alice Theresinha Cybis Pereira; Berenice Santos Gonçalves
year 2004
title O ambiente virtual de aprendizagem em arquitetura e design da UFSC - Do projeto à realidade [The Virtual Learning Environment in Architecture and Design at UFSC – From Project to Reality]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This article presents the theoretical basis and the structure that supports the virtual learning process on a collaborative environment for Architecture and Design: VLE-AD. The virtual environment is modelled based on the presuppositions of the Problems Based Learning (PBL) and on the distance collaboration based with the fundamentals of constructivism and socio-interacionism. A specific environment for problems resolution is offered together with syncronic and assyncronic communication tools. The site is structured with learning activities in several modalities: contents, exercises and problems. The evaluation was preformed with the on-line course .Color applied in Graphical Design..The results has proven to be very positive for design and architecture distant learning in applying the tripod: Communication and Information Technology, Theoretical contents and Problems. The online participation and the resolution steps of the problems has been highlighted as a main factor to improve learning and avoid the ghost of loneliness pointed by students from some distant learning courses and responsible for the high number of abandonment.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2006_454
id 2006_454
authors Bampanelos, Athanasios A.
year 2006
title Space time pixels
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 454-457
summary This paper reports the design and installation of a networked application that records body activity and generates a wall-projected, intermediate, shared, electronic space, which can support original interaction between multiple participants in two distant, physical spaces.
keywords Awareness; Ambient media; Body interfaces; Social interaction
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id acadia19_258
id acadia19_258
authors Bar-Sinai, Karen Lee; Shaked, Tom; Sprecher, Aaron
year 2019
title Informing Grounds
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 258-265
summary Advancements in robotic fabrication are enabling on-site construction in increasingly larger scales. In this paper, we argue that as autonomous tools encounter the territorial scale, they open new ways to embed information into it. To define the new practice, this paper introduces a protocol combining a theoretical framework and an iterative process titled Informing Grounds. This protocol mediates and supports the exchange of knowledge between a digital and a physical environment and is applicable to a variety of materials with uncertain characteristics in a robotic manufacturing scenario. The process is applied on soil and demonstrated through a recent design-to-fabrication workshop that focused on simulating digital groundscaping of distant lunar grounds employing robotic sand-forming. The first stage is ‘sampling’—observing the physical domain both as an initial step as well as a step between the forming cycles to update the virtual model. The second stage is ‘streaming’—the generation of information derived from the digital model and its projection onto the physical realm. The third stage is ‘transforming’—the shaping of the sand medium through a physical gesture. The workshop outcomes serve as the basis for discussion regarding the challenges posed by applying autonomous robotic tools on materials with uncertain behavior at a large-scale.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2019/12/18 08:03

_id sigradi2007_af101
id sigradi2007_af101
authors Barci Castriota, Leonardo; Carla Viviane da Silva Angelo
year 2007
title Digital technology and accessibility: The Rede Latino-americana de Acervos de Arquitetura e Urbanismo (RELARQ) [Tecnologia digital e acessibilidade: A Rede Latino-americana de Acervos de Arquitetura e Urbanismo (RELARQ)]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 200-204
summary The new digital technologies offer new possibilities of interconnection and re-connection that are reconfiguring the diverse areas of knowledge and the diverse fields of human action. In this direction, this work reflects on the proposal of the creation of the Latin American Network or Architectural Archives (RELARQ), pioneering initiative in our continent that aims to create a basis of cooperation between the diverse Brazilian and Latin-American institutions, with the objective to congregate, in an online catalogue, accessible to all, the information contained in hundreds of institutions distributed all over the continent, that will count with a common methodological basis for digital treatment and access to the images. With the RELARQ, the area of the History of Architecture will have a new, powerful tool in as far as the researchers will be able to access archives in the most distant places of our continent.
keywords Architecture; digitalization; photography; accessibility; internet
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ecaade2017_208
id ecaade2017_208
authors Beaudry Marchand, Emmanuel, Han, Xueying and Dorta, Tomás
year 2017
title Immersive retrospection by video-photogrammetry - UX assessment tool of interactions in museums, a case study
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 729-738
summary Studying interactions in museums often omits to consider the complexity of the space and the visitors' behaviors. Visitors' walking paths do not provide enough insight of their user experience (UX) since they are distant from the experiential realities. Videogrammetry can convey such dimensions of an environmental experience. Because of limitations of real-time playback, a twofold approach is suggested: "immersive videos" combined with "photogrammetric models". A granular optimal experience assessment method using retrospection interviews is also applied providing a finer evaluation of the perceived experience through time. This method permits to characterize museum interactive installations, according to the perceived challenges and skills of the interaction's task, based this time on immersive retrospection. This paper proposes the "Immersive retrospection" by "Immersive video-photogrammetry" as a UX assessment tool of interactions in museums. A hybrid virtual environment was used in this study, allowing social VR without the use of headsets, through a life-sized projection of interactive 3D content. The study showed that Immersive video-photogrammetry facilitates the recall of memories and allows a deepened self-observation analysis.
keywords immersive retrospection; photogrammetry; videogrammetry; UX assessment; museum environments
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:30

_id bbb9
authors Blaise, Jean-Yves and Dudek, Iwona
year 1999
title SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for On Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 700-707
summary Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
keywords Web Interface, Database, Architectural Heritage Environment, Information Module, Historical Evolutions
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ae10
authors Branzell, Arne
year 1995
title Management of Sequential Space Experiences
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary In this paper a way of combining endoscopy with architectural notations will be presented. Endoscopy is regarded as a tool to visualize sequences from a model in order to demonstrate how the environment will look like from the pedestrian’s or driver’s view. But while using it, its limitations must be considered. The model is mostly too small to present distant landmarks, districts, nodes and edges of importance. And most important, experience of space is not only visual. It is a complex process where many aspects must be taken into consideration. These aspects can be presented with architectural notations on physical drawings of the situation. The resulting “storyboard” is most useful in analyzing the situation and making better solutions possible.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 36f5
authors Burry, M., Burry, J. and Faulí, J.
year 2001
title Sagrada Família Rosassa: Global Computeraided Dialogue between Designer and Craftsperson (Overcoming Differences in Age, Time and Distance)
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 076-086
summary The rose window (‘rosassa’ in Catalan) recently completed between the two groups of towers that make up the Passion Façade of Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Church in Barcelona measures eight metres wide and thirty-five metres in height [Figure 1]. There were four phases to the design based in three distinct geographical locations. The design was undertaken on site, design description in Australia some eighteen thousand kilometres distant, stone-cutting a thousand kilometres distant in Galicia, with the completion of the window in March 2001. The entire undertaking was achieved within a timeframe of fifteen months from the first design sketch. Within this relatively short period, the entire team achieved a new marriage between architecture and construction, a broader relationship between time-honoured craft technique with high technology, and evidence of leading the way in trans-global collaboration via the Internet. Together the various members of the project team combined to demonstrate that the technical office on site at the Sagrada Família Church now has the capacity to use ‘just-in-time’ project management in order to increase efficiency. The processes and dialogues developed help transcend the tyranny of distance, the difficult relationship between traditional craft based technique and innovative digitally enhanced production methods, and the three generational age differences between the youngest and more senior team members.
keywords Digital Practice, Global Collaboration, Rapid Prototyping
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id cf2019_016
id cf2019_016
authors Cardoso Llach, Daniel and Scott Donaldson
year 2019
title An Experimental Archaeology of CAD Using Software Reconstruction to Explore the Past and Future of ComputerAided Design
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, p. 130
summary This paper proposes software reconstruction as a method to shed new light into the material, gestural, and sensual dimensions of computer-aided design technologies. Specifically, it shows how by combining historical research and creative prototyping this method can bring us closer to distant ways of seeing, touching, drawing, and designing—while raising new questions about the impact of CAD technologies on present-day architectural practices. It documents the development of two software reconstructions—of Ivan Sutherland’s “Sketchpad” and of Steven A. Coons’s “Coons Patch”—and reflects on the responses they elicited in the context of two exhibitions. The paper shows how software reconstruction can offer access to overlooked aspects of computer-aided design systems, specially their material and sensual dimensions, and how we may explore its broader potential for research, preservation, pedagogy, and speculative design of design technologies.
keywords Software Reconstruction, Media Archaeology, CAD, Sketchpad, Steven A. Coons, Ivan Sutherland, Computational Design History
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2019/07/29 12:08

_id sigradi2010_146
id sigradi2010_146
authors Choma, Joseph
year 2010
title CONTESTED BOUNDARIES: Digital Fabrication + Hand Craft
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 146-149
summary This research investigates the relationship between efficiency, precision and tactile variation within architectural design and fabrication. A digitally driven design may be seamlessly precise and consistent but also feel sterile and distant from the human body. A materially driven design may be intimate and tactile but lack the accuracy needed to connect elements. Digital fabrication techniques are combined with hand craft material manipulations in search of a unique hybrid tectonic that merges connection accuracies with subtle but sensual divergences between repeating modules. Prototypes have been constructed at the object and inhabitable scale.
keywords instrumentality, tacit knowledge, digital fabrication, hand craft, design and computation
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 9eef
id 9eef
authors Christenson, Mike
year 2010
title Registering visual permeability in architecture: Isovists and occlusion maps in AutoLISP
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 37(6): 1128–1136
summary In this paper the design and execution of a simple AutoLISP routine for generating a map of plan isovists (in the sense of Benedikt) are discussed. Such a plan field of isovists is a registration of visibility from multiple station points within and around a building. More precisely, the plan field records the cumulative effect, over a spatial matrix, of occluded vision of a distant horizon. Thus, the plan field is termed an occlusion map. An occlusion map registers the effect which an observer's position in space has on their perception of architecture's visual permeability. Occlusion maps are shown here to be an important tool for comparing existing buildings in a historical sense and also as an effective design tool, particularly when an addition to an existing building is being contemplated, as an addition invariably affects the visual permeability of its host.
keywords AutoLISP, visibility, isovist
series journal paper
type normal paper
more doi:10.1068/b36076
last changed 2011/04/13 14:58

_id bdf0
authors Cuberos Mejía, Ricardo and Alvarado, Rodrigo García
year 2000
title El Ejercicio Profesional: Más Allá de la Tridimensionalidad Informática (The Professional Practice: Beyond Computing Tridimensionality)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 104-106
summary This paper proposes a group of strategies for the use of computer tools in modeling and decisions making process, particularly in those typical design projects of habitual professional labor. This design process is illustrated though a model that include promoter-investor’s interests, financial restrictions on a little consulting office, and usual design focuses on local union. These experiences are exemplified though specific projects with public and residential use developed and built in Venezuela and Chile, distant geographically but near in a same know-how of computer assisted architectural design in Latin America.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id fd8b
authors Czernuszenko, M., Pape, D., Sandin, D., DeFanti, T., Dawe, G. and Brown, M.
year 1997
title The ImmersaDesk and Infinity Wall projection-based virtual reality displays
source Computer Graphics, 31(2): 46-49, May
summary Virtual reality (VR) can be defined as interactive computer graphics that provides viewer-centered perspective, large field of view and stereo. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) and BOOMs™ achieve these features with small display screens which move with the viewer, close to the viewer's eyes. Projection-based displays, supply these characteristics by placing large, fixed screens more distant from the viewer. The Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) of the University of Illinois at Chicago has specialized in projection-based VR systems. EVL's projection-based VR display, the CAVE™ premiered at the SIGGRAPH 92 conference.In this article we present two new, CAVE-derived, projection-based VR displays developed at EVL: the ImmersaDesk™ and the Infinity Wall™, a VR version of the PowerWall. We describe the different requirements which led to their design, and compare these systems to other VR devices.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e5a2
authors Debevec, P.
year 1998
title Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: Bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography
source Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 98, M. Cohen, Ed., 189–198
summary We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to light-based models with correct lighting. The method uses a high dynamic range imagebased model of the scene, rather than synthetic light sources, to illuminate the newobjects. To compute the illumination, the scene is considered as three components: the distant scene, the local scene, and the synthetic objects. The distant scene is assumed to be photometrically unaffected by the objects, obviating the need for re- flectance model information. The local scene is endowed with estimated reflectance model information so that it can catch shadows and receive reflected light from the new objects. Renderings are created with a standard global illumination method by simulating the interaction of light amongst the three components. A differential rendering technique allows for good results to be obtained when only an estimate of the local scene reflectance properties is known. We apply the general method to the problem of rendering synthetic objects into real scenes. The light-based model is constructed from an approximate geometric model of the scene and by using a light probe to measure the incident illumination at the location of the synthetic objects. The global illumination solution is then composited into a photograph of the scene using the differential rendering technique. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id caadria2011_026
id caadria2011_026
authors Dorta, Tomás; Yehuda Kalay, Annemarie Lesage and Edgar Pérez
year 2011
title First steps of the augmented design studio: The interconnected Hybrid Ideation Space and the CI Loop
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 271-280
summary Professional or school design studios are essential environments for design supporting free exploration of materials and representations, analogue or digital. New technologies have moved into the studio with mixed results. Paradoxically, the use of portable computers, using Internet as collaboration channel, has actually individualized the design work and limited the support to co-creation, reinforcing individual work. The Augmented Design Studio argues for the implementation of hybrid technology, such as the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS), in the design studio to compensate for the absence of collective local or remote efficient ideation space. This paper presents a case study showing the primary results of distant synchronous and asynchronous design collaboration supported by the interconnected HIS during an ad-hoc project and assessed by the improved Collaborative Ideation Loop (CI Loop) methodology. The HIS was installed in two universities located in different countries. We ran a research protocol in the format of a design charrette where two teams (team a: two architecture students, team b: two industrial design students) participated in the ideation of a bus shelter. This case study shows that teams were able to co-design while they were virtually “teleported” into each other’s representations.
keywords Design studio; hybrid approach; Collaborative Ideation Loop; telepresence; Hybrid Ideation Space
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 6b33
authors Dudek, I., Czubinski J., Blaise, J.-Y. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Collaborative Network Tools for the Architectural Analysis in Conservation Research
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 75-84
summary Development of net-based tools initiate a new architecture-computer science junction, offering a possibility to investigate distant exchange and updating of research work on architectural artefacts. Tools such as CAD platforms, rendering software and DBMS are integrated to the every day work of more and more architects and conservationists. Computer tools, which have been introduced in the process of analysing architecture as drawing and data management platforms, now bring to the fore a deeper change: distant analysis. The development of web technologies and the object oriented approach to knowledge representation give us an opportunity of research in the fields of collaborative work on architectural data models. The research presented in this paper focuses on a first set of network operative tools for a co-operation program aimed at developing web-enabled architectural data models referring to the evolution of Cracow's Old Town Hall.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ecaade2008_086
id ecaade2008_086
authors Elsen, Catherine; Juchmes, Roland; Kubicki, Sylvain; Leclercq, Pierre
year 2008
title DCDS – Distant Collaborative Design Studio
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 325-332
summary This paper introduces new supporting tools in the field of distant collaborative design, namely DCDS and CRTI-weB. These prototypes respectively support: the early stages of design, through the support of the crucial initial step of free-hand sketches shared in real-time, and the asynchronous collaborative activities. The main goal of this paper is to propose the use of these innovative tools as an efficient and realistic way of managing long distance collaboration, to effectively serve the designers’ needs. This proposition is analyzed and addressed through a real-size experiment featuring 30 architecture and architectural-engineering students, working together in real-time at different locations (Belgium and France). This experiment and the necessary survey open up interesting fields of investigation, such as the relevance of the proposed services in supporting distant collaborative design in architecture and the benefit this represents for students to merge the IT aspects and the design studio. The methodology and the replicability are analyzed to increase the level and quality of formation of our students and, finally, a criticism of the tools confirms a benefit for the developing teams.
keywords Distant collaborative design, sketch support systems, asynchronous collaborative activities
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id cf2019_014
id cf2019_014
authors Ferrando, Cecilia; Niccolo Dalmasso, Jiawei Mai, Daniel Cardoso Llach
year 2019
title Architectural Distant Reading Using Machine Learning to Identify Typological Traits Across Multiple Buildings
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, pp. 114-127
summary This paper introduces an approach to architectural “distant reading”: the use of computational methods to analyze architectural data in order to derive spatial insights from—and explore new questions concerning—large collections of architectural work. Through a case study comprising a dataset of religious buildings, we show how we may use machine learning techniques to identify typological and functional traits from building plans. We find that spatial structure, rather than local features, is particularly effective in supporting this type of analysis. Further, we speculate on the potential of this computational method to enrich architectural design, research, and criticism by, for example, enabling new ways of thinking about architectural concepts such as typology in ways that reflect gradual variations, rather than sharp distinctions.
keywords Architectural Analytics, Machine Learning, Classification, Religious buildings, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2019/07/29 12:08

_id b04c
authors Goerger, S., Darken, R., Boyd, M., Gagnon, T., Liles, S., Sullivan, J. and Lawson, J.
year 1996
title Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Maps and Virtual Environments in Complex Architectural Space
source Proc. 16 th Applied Behavioral Sciences Symposium, 22-23 April, U.S. Airforce Academy, Colorado Springs, CO., 1996, 6-10
summary It has often been suggested that due to its inherent spatial nature, a virtual environment (VE) might be a powerful tool for spatial knowledge acquisition of a real environment, as opposed to the use of maps or some other two-dimensional, symbolic medium. While interesting from a psychological point of view, a study of the use of a VE in lieu of a map seems nonsensical from a practical point of view. Why would the use of a VE preclude the use of a map? The more interesting investigation would be of the value added of the VE when used with a map. If the VE could be shown to substantially improve navigation performance, then there might be a case for its use as a training tool. If not, then we have to assume that maps continue to be the best spatial knowledge acquisition tool available. An experiment was conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine if the use of an interactive, three-dimensional virtual environment would enhance spatial knowledge acquisition of a complex architectural space when used in conjunction with floor plan diagrams. There has been significant interest in this research area of late. Witmer, Bailey, and Knerr (1995) showed that a VE was useful in acquiring route knowledge of a complex building. Route knowledge is defined as the procedural knowledge required to successfully traverse paths between distant locations (Golledge, 1991). Configurational (or survey) knowledge is the highest level of spatial knowledge and represents a map-like internal encoding of the environment (Thorndyke, 1980). The Witmer study could not confirm if configurational knowledge was being acquired. Also, no comparison was made to a map-only condition, which we felt is the most obvious alternative. Comparisons were made only to a real world condition and a symbolic condition where the route is presented verbally.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2