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authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures 89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
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100%; open Begeman, M. and Conklin, J. (1988) Find in CUMINCAD The Right Tool for the Job , Byte (September 1988)
100%; open Conklin, J. (1987) Find in CUMINCAD Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey , IEEE Computer 20:9 (September 1987)
100%; open Fischer, G. and Lemke, A. (1987) Find in CUMINCAD Construction Kits and Design Environments: Steps toward Human Problem Domain Communication , Human-Computer Interaction journal 3:3 (1987-88), pp. 179-222
100%; open Fischer, G. and Morch A. (1988) Find in CUMINCAD CRACK: A Critiquing Approach to Cooperative Kitchen Design , Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (June 1988) Design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (June 1988)
100%; open Kunz, W. and Rittel, H. (1970) Find in CUMINCAD Issues as Elements of Information Systems , Working Paper 131. Stuttgart: Institut fuer Grundlagen der Plannung
100%; open McCall, R. (1979) Find in CUMINCAD On the Structure and Use of Issue Systems in Design , Dissertation, University of Califomia, Berkeley
100%; open McCall, R. (1986) Find in CUMINCAD Issue-Serve Systems: A Descriptive Theory of Design , Design Methods and Theories 20:3 (1986)
100%; open McCall, R. (1987) Find in CUMINCAD PHIBIS: Procedurally Hierarchical Issue-Based Information Systems , Proceedings of the Conference on Architecture at the International Congress on Planning and Design Theory. New York: American Sociey of Mechanical Engineers
100%; open Rittel, H. (1972) Find in CUMINCAD On the Planning Crisis: Systems Approaches of the First and Second Generation , Bedriftokonomen 8:390 (1972)
100%; open Schoen, D. (1983) Find in CUMINCAD The Reflective Practitioner , New York: Basic Books

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