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authors Noble, Douglas and Rittel, Horst W.J.
year 1988
title Issue-Based Information Systems for Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 275-286
summary The understanding of planning and design as a process of argumentation (of the designer with himself or with others) has led to the concept of IBIS (Issue-Based Information Systems). The elements of IBIS are Issues, each of which are associated with alternative positions. These in turn are associated with arguments which support or object to a given position (or another argument). In the course of the treatment of issues, new issues come up which are treated likewise.

Issue-Based Information Systems are used as a means of widening the coverage of a problem. By encouraging a greater degree of participation, particularly in the earlier phases of the process, the designer is increasing the opportunity that difficulties of his proposed solution, unseen by him, will be discovered by others. Since the problem observed by a designer can always be treated as merely a symptom of another higher-level problem, the argumentative approach also increases the likelyhood that someone will attempt to attack the problem from this point of view. Another desirable characteristic of the Issue-Based Information System is that it helps to make the design process 'transparent'. Transparency here refers tO the ability of observers as well as participants to trace back the process of decision-making.

This paper offers a description of a computer-supported IBIS (written in 'C' using the 'XWindows' user interface), including a discussion of the usefulness of IBIS in design, as well as comments on the role of the computer in IBIS implementation, and related developments in computing.

series ACADIA
email dnoble@usc.edu
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100%; open Concklin, Jeff and Begeman, Michael (1988) Find in CUMINCAD gIBIS: A Hypertext Tool for Exploratory Polky Discussion , Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Austin, Texas, January 1988
100%; open Concklin, Jeff and Begeman, Michael (1988) Find in CUMINCAD gIBIS: A Hypertext Tool for Team Design Deliberation (extended abstract) , MCC Technical Report Number STP-016-88, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Austin, Texas, January 1988
100%; open Dehlinger, Hans and Protzen, Jean-Pierre (1972) Find in CUMINCAD Debate and Argumentation in Planning: An Inquiry into Appropriate Rules and Procedures , Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of Califomia, Berkeley, 1972, IURD Working Paper 178. Also: Institut fuer Grundlagen der Planung, Universiteat Stuttgart S-78-3
100%; open Grant, Donald P. (1977) Find in CUMINCAD How to Use the IBIS , Design Methods Group Journal, Vol. 11, No.4
100%; open Grant, Donald P. (1982) Find in CUMINCAD Issue Based Information Systemf (IBIS) , Group Planning and Problem Solving Methods in Engineering, in Olsen, Shirley A. (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp.203-246
100%; open Kim, Michael Kyong-il (1980) Find in CUMINCAD Countermodeling as a Strategy for Decision-Making: Epistemological Problems in Design , Ph.D Dissertation, Architecture, University of California, Berkeley
100%; open Kunz, W. and Rittel, H.W.J. (1970) Find in CUMINCAD Issues as Elements of Information Systems , Institute for Urban & Regional Development, University of Califomia, Berkeley, No.131, 1970, also: Institut fuer Grundlagen der Planung, Universiteat Stuttgart S78-2
100%; open Kunz, W. and Rittel, H.W.J. (1973) Find in CUMINCAD Information Science: On the Structure of its Problems , Information Storage and Retrieval, Vol.8, pp. 155-169, pp.95-98
100%; open Mann, Thorbjoern (1977) Find in CUMINCAD Argument Assessment for Design Decisions , Ph.D Dissertation, Architecture, University of Califomia, Berkeley
100%; open McCall, Raymond J. (1978) Find in CUMINCAD On the Structure and Use of Issue Systems in Design , Ph.D Dissertation, University of Califomia, Berkeley
100%; open Olsen, Shirley A.(Ed.) (1982) Find in CUMINCAD Group Planning and Problem Solving Methods in Engineering , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York
100%; open Rittel, Horst W.J. (1980) Find in CUMINCAD APIS - A Concept for an Argumentative Planning Information System , InstitLite of Urban and Regional Development, University of Califomia, Berkeley, Working Paper 324

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