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id ddss2004_d-157
authors Krafta, R.
year 2004
title Space is the Machine, with a Ghost Inside
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 157-173
summary The purpose of this paper is to report efforts towards the construction of a model for urban spatial dynamics simulation, based on multi-agents and space. The underlying idea is to have urban space producers and consumers operating in a two-layer, two-circuit model. The first layer holds urban space and its successive transformations; a second layer contains agents related to space; the first circuit simulates space production, and a second one simulates space consumption. Relationship between layers is represented as objective spatial features that agents are submitted to (the machine) and subjective meanings agents attach to each spatial feature (the ghost). While space works always in the same way, meanings vary according to each agentís background and context. Relationships between circuits are represented by means of a market game in which producers try to maximize their profits by gambling with their risks, whereas consumers try to foresee the spatial distribution of local externalities that maximizes their utilities and investments. Urban Spatial Features are captured through centrality and land use patterns; every single agentís action leads to changes in both patterns. Producersí profit is a function of built form location. Consumersí local externalities are concerned basically with present and future services. The model iteration is twofold: first it generates and allocates a number of built forms within a previously determined spatial system (a cellular matrix, for example), and second it allocates users to built forms. Population of users have its social profile and growth rate externally determined. Built form allocation is decided on the basis of a combination of profitXrisk perspectives. Usersí locational choice is supported by accessibility to services and present/future neighbourhood profile. Built form allocation works as parameter for usersí locational assessment, whereas usersí choices are used as parameters for developers. The model tends to adjust itself, in terms of quantities and types of built forms to be erected, although through a market lag of some iterations. Allocations are always made through weighted draws, so that mutations (non deterministic allocations) do occur.
keywords Urban Morphology, Urban Growth, Simulation
series DDSS
full text file.pdf (178,846 bytes)
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last changed 2004/07/03 20:13
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