CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

id ddss2008-08
authors Koshak, Nabeel A.; Abdullah Fouda
year 2008
title Analyzing Pedestrian Movement in Mataf Using GPSand GIS to Support Space Redesign
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Evaluating the use of architectural and urban spaces is an important issue for architects and urban designers who wish to enhance space usability. Space usability is crucial in crowded spaces such as Mataf areas. Millions of people come to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia every year to perform Hajj (Islamic Pilgrimage) and Umrah. A cornerstone of Hajj and Umrah spirituals is to perform Tawaf, which is the circumambulation of the Ka'bah in the center of the Holy Mosque in Makkah. The areas of performing Tawaf (called Mataf) become very crowded during Hajj and the last ten days of Ramadan. This paper demonstrates how we utilized Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze pedestrian movement while performing Tawaf. During the Hajj of 1424 H (2004 in the Georgian Calendar), several GPS devices were used to collect pedestrian movement coordinates at specific time intervals. Computer software for tracking analysis is used to visualize and analyze the pattern of pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The software allows users to view temporal data, which can be set up with past time windows for historical data analysis. The findings of this research show levels of service and flow rates throughout different zones and times of Mataf. They indicate the most critical zones and times for Tawaf during Hajj. They also visually demonstrate the track pattern of pedestrian movement at different locations in the Tawaf area. The paper concludes with some redesign recommendations to remove obstacles and facilitate pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The approach described in this paper can be implemented in architectural and urban design space modifications to improve pedestrian movement in open spaces.
keywords Pedestrian movement analysis, GPS, GIS, Hajj, Makkah, Tawaf
series DDSS
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100%; open Elgethun, K., Fenske, R. A., Yost, M. G., and Palcisko, G. J. (2003) Find in CUMINCAD Time–Location Analysis for Exposure Assessment Studies of Children Using a Novel Global Positioning System Instrument , Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 111, Issue 1, January 2003
100%; open Kitazawa, Kay, and Batty M. (2004) Find in CUMINCAD Pedestrian Behavior Modeling: An application to retail movement using a generic algorithm , Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems (DDSS) in Architecture and Urban Planning, Conference Centre De Ruwenberg, Sint-Michielsgestel, The Netherlands, July 2-5, 2004
100%; open Ladetto, Q., Gabaglio, V., Merminod, B., Terrier, P., and Schutz, Y. (2000) Find in CUMINCAD Human Walking Analysis Assisted by DPGS , Proceedings of GNSS '2000, Edinburgh, UK
100%; open Longley, Paul A., and Batty, Michael (2003) Find in CUMINCAD Advanced Spatial Analysis: the CASA Book of GIS , Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, CA, USA
100%; open Tomlinson, Roger F. (2003) Find in CUMINCAD Thinking about GIS: Geographic Information System Planning for Managers , Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, CA, USA

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