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id ddss9507
authors Zimring, C., Do, E., Domeshek, E. and Kolodner, J.
year 1994
title Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation To AID Reflection in ConceptualDesign: Creating a Case-Based Design Aid For Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The design of large complex "real-world" objects such as buildings requires that the intentions of many potentially competing stakeholders be understood and reconciled. The process of conceptual design itself can be understood as a set of discourses among design team participants and between the designer and the design that gradually reveal these intentions and their relationships to design moves. Our goal is to aid this discourse by creating a Case-based Design Aid (CBDA) that provides design team participants access to specific evaluated cases of experience with previous buildings. This represents a merger of two sets of theories and methodologies: case-based reasoning (CBR) in artificial intelligence; and, post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in architectural research. In developing our CBDA, we have focused on several problems in architectural design: understanding the interactions between intentions, and making links between various modes of understanding and communication, and particularly between verbal description and visual representation. This has led to a particular way of parsing experience, and to several modes of entering and browsing the system. For instance, each case is accessible as a specific building, such as the Santa Clara County Hall of Justice, that can be explored much as an architect might browse a magazine article about the building, looking at a brief text description of the building, photos, and plans. However, each plan is annotated with "problematic situations" that are actually hypertext links into the discursive part of the program. By clicking on the button, the users reaches a "story" screen that lists the intentions of various stakeholders relevant to the problematic situation, a fuller text description of the general problematic situation with a diagram, text and diagram for a specific problematic situation as it operates in a specific building, several general design responses showing how one might respond to the problematic situations, and specific design responses from specific buildings. In addition, the user can browse the system by listing his or her interests and moving directly to stories about a given space type such as "courtroom" or issue such as "way finding." In addition, the designer can access brief synopses of key issues in a building type, for a space type, or for an issue. We are currently implementing the system on the Macintosh using Common Lisp and are focusing on libraries and courthouses as initial building types. Initial feedback from designers has been encouraging. We believe that this approach provides a useful alternative to design guidelines, that often tend to be too prescriptive, and the entirely inductive approach of many designers that may miss critical intentions.
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