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id ddssup9615
authors Lucardie, L., de Gelder, J. and Duursma, C.
year 1996
title Matching the Knowledge Needs of Trade and Industry: Advanced and Operational Knowledge Based Systems
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Complex tasks that are being performed in trade and industry such as diagnosis, engineering and planning, increasingly require rapid and easy access to large amounts of complicated knowledge. To cope with these demands on trade and industry, advanced automated support for managing knowledge seems to be needed. Knowledge based systems are claimed to match these needs. However, to deal with the vast volume and complexity of knowledge through knowledge based systems, preconditions at three computer systems levels should be fulfilled. At the first level, called the knowledge level, the development of knowledge based systems requires a well-elaborated theory of the nature of knowledge that helps to get a clear and consistent definition of knowledge. By providing guidelines for selecting and developing methodologies and for organising the mathematical functions underlying knowledge representation formalisms, such a definition significantly advances the process of knowledge engineering. Here, we present the theory of functional object-types as a theory of the nature of knowledge. At the second level, called the symbol level, the representation formalisms used must be compatible with the chosen theory of the nature of knowledge. The representation formalisms also have to be interpretable as propositions representing knowledge, so that their knowledge level import can be assessed. Furthermore, knowledge representation formalisms have to play a causal role in the intelligent behaviour of the knowledge based system. At the third level, called the systems level, a knowledge based system should be equipped with facilities that enable an effective management of the representation formalisms used. Yet other system facilities are needed to allow the knowledge base to communicate with existing computer systems used in the daily practice of trade and industry, for instance Database Management Systems, Geographical Information Systems and Computer Aided Design Systems. It should be taken into account that these systems may run in different networks and on different operating systems. A real-world knowledge based system that operates in the field of soil contamination exemplifies the development of an advanced and operational knowledge-based system that complies with the preconditions at each computer systems level.
series DDSS
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